The increasing intensity of the irrigation water diversion can al

The increasing intensity of the irrigation water diversion can also be seen from the dotted lines in Fig. 13. Water consumption increased more and more after 1980. Increase in the water demand and consumption by the industrial and service sectors is another reason for streamflow reduction in the Heihe River although they account for only around 10% of the total water use. China’s Afatinib national economic reform began in 1978, and new industrial sectors have grown greatly since then, which drive up the GDP

rapidly. The GDP of Zhangye (Fig. 14(a)) increased notably after 1985, reached 21.2 billion Yuan in 2010 (about 600 folds of the 1950). The industry gross output (Fig. 14(b)) also increased notably after 1985, reached 9.84 billion Yuan

in 2010. According to the government statistical information, the proportion of outputs from the agriculture, industry and services, respectively, was 72%, 7%, and 21% in 1952, 47%, 30%, and 23% in 1980, and 28%, 36%, and 36% in 2012. The rapid rise in industry and services sectors led to a tremendous increase in water demand (Wang et al., 2009). Water consumption in the middle HRB increased from 5.13 × 108 to 8.71 × 108 m3 per year from 1985 to 2001 (Qi and Luo, 2005). The rapid development of agriculture and growth of economy began in the early 1980s. The downward abrupt change in the streamflow of the Zhengyixia station started in 1979, and significant upward abrupt change of the streamflow difference between Yingluoxia and Zhengyixia started

in 1982. The consistency in the timing confirmed that the decrease in the streamflow of the Heihe River were mainly due to local agricultural and Gamma-secretase inhibitor economic development. For the middle and lower HRB where streamflow was greatly affected by human activities, the policy preference of the government was an important factor directly or indirectly contributing to streamflow changes. In the 1980s, the government desired to make the “Hexi Corridor” an important grain production base. The Resveratrol emphasis on grain production promoted the rapid advance of farming and irrigation projects. Unconstrained development resulted in streamflow being dried up in the lower HRB. The shortage of water for the lower HRB left people and the ecosystem in the downstream Gobi desert region to compete for limited water resources for survival. As a consequence, the fragile ecological system has been seriously damaged, and the conflict of water between the midstream and downstream became rampant. To restore the severely degraded ecosystem in the lower HRB, the government relied on water transfer projects to cope with water shortage. The central government had invested 2.3 billion Yuan to implement the EWDP in 2000. The increase in the streamflow to the downstream of HRB is a direct outcome of the EWDP. From 2000 to 2005, there had been 16 times of intermittent watering to the lower Heihe River with the total volume of 5.28 billion cubic meters (Guo et al., 2009).

Before phenotyping, cells were incubated with Fc-Block for 15 min

Before phenotyping, cells were incubated with Fc-Block for 15 minutes (BD Biosciences, Heidelberg, Germany). After staining of dead cells with EMA (Life Technologies) and cell surface molecules, intracellular cytokines were stained using the Cytofix/Cytoperm Kit (BD Biosciences). Cells were analyzed using a FACSCanto II flow cytometer (BD Biosciences), and data were analyzed Galunisertib manufacturer using FlowJo 9.2 software (Tree Star, Inc, Ashland, OR). T cells

were isolated, stimulated, and transduced for 3 days before transfer. The cells were then harvested and washed 2 times with ice-cold PBS (180g, 4°C, 8 minutes). CAR expression was determined by flow cytometry. The cell number was adjusted to 4 × 106 CAR+ cells per animal dissolved in PBS and injected intraperitoneally. Mice were bled at indicated time points. Recipient mice were 16- to 24-week-old male animals. Groups of mice were matched for age and hepatitis B e antigen titers. Data are reported as mean values ± SEM. Groups were compared with the nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis test using Prism 5.0 (GraphPad Software, Inc, La Jolla, CA). A P value less than .05 was considered statistically significant. Additional methods are described

in Supplementary Materials and Methods. The HBV-specific chimeric antigen receptor (S-CAR) used in this study to redirect T cells contains a single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) that binds to the S domain of all 3 HBV envelope proteins (S, M, and L protein, combined as HBsAg). The scFv selleck chemicals is linked to the CD3ζ and costimulatory CD28 signaling domains (Figure 1A), providing combined activation signals to T cells when recognizing cell surface–bound HBsAg. The aim of this is

to overcome local hepatic coinhibitory signals. 11 A human carcinoembryonic Cytidine deaminase antigen (CEA)-specific CAR served as a control for antigen-independent activation of grafted T cells. After transduction of T cells with CARs using retroviral vectors ( Figure 1B), only S-CAR–transduced T cells produced high amounts of interferon (IFN)-γ and proliferated in an antigen-specific manner, that is, when cocultured with HBV-replicating human hepatoma cells but not with HBV-negative parental cells ( Figure 1C and D). We observed mobilization of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 on binding of S-CAR–grafted T cells to plate-bound HBsAg ( Figure 1E), indicating release of cytotoxic granules. Notably, S-CAR–redirected T cells recognized surface antigen of the 2 most prevalent subtypes of HBV: adw and ayw ( Figure 1F). Critical for the success of adoptive cell therapy is the proper functionality of transferred T cells, ensuring that these cells survive and accumulate at the site of antigen expression.16 We compared classic IL-2 stimulation with IL-12 stimulation of T cells during in vitro expansion and retroviral CAR transduction.

Myocardial Acot1 and other fatty acid-responsive genes were incre

Myocardial Acot1 and other fatty acid-responsive genes were increased to a lesser extent in WES diet-fed rats compared with high-fat fed animals, to which attenuated fatty acid oxidation and contractile dysfunction were attributed [62]. Expression of myocardial Acot1 is partly determined by ingested fatty acids, demonstrated in a study detailing the effect of a single dose of isolated fatty acids in mice [11]. More specifically, media enrichment with eicosapentaenoic Silmitasertib in vitro acid and DHA resulted in increased ACOT1 activity in cultured cells [63]. Consistent with this, increased Acot1 gene expression was measured in WES + DHA–fed

rats compared with CON animals, and similar directionality of protein expression was observed; this may represent an adaptive metabolic response underlying myocardial protection attributed to DHA. The family of Btg are studied primarily in relation to cancer, due to antiproliferative

effects attributable to cell cycle regulation [64] and [65]. B-cell translocation gene 2 has been detected in myocardial tissue in swine, where it appears to have a role in normal development [66]. Whether it plays a role in myocardial hypertrophy, where myocytes increase in size rather than number is unknown. In addition to effects on proliferation and development, BTG2 also protects human mammary epithelial cells from oxidative stress [67]. It is unknown whether BTG2 provides cardioprotection by a similar mechanism. Interestingly, Btg2 gene BKM120 purchase expression was decreased in WES + DHA rats compared with both CON and WES animals, and in the former comparison, similar trends in protein expression were observed. This suggests that the antiproliferative and oxidant protective effects attributed to BTG2 are not mechanisms of DHA-mediated cardioprotection. A comparison of myocardial gene expression relevant to adaptive and maladaptive hypertrophy was conducted using exercise-trained Interleukin-3 receptor and Dahl salt-sensitive rats, respectively.[8] At 6 months,

changes in heart weight and myocardial structure/function were more pronounced than in the present study. Compared with CON animals, Dahl salt-sensitive rats displayed differences in genes relevant to apoptosis, whereas exercise-trained animals displayed differences in genes associated with glucose and insulin regulation as well as protein synthesis. Genes known to be up-regulated with pathologic hypertrophy, atrial natriuretic factor, and brain natriuretic protein were also increased in the Dahl salt-sensitive rats. These trends were not observed in the present study, and relatively few genes in a given canonical or toxicologic pathway or biologic functional grouping were differentially expressed.

All data were analysed using Dunnett’s test for significant diffe

All data were analysed using Dunnett’s test for significant differences between solvent control plates

and those treated with PM. The numbers of revertants per μg PM were calculated using data from the linear part of the dose–response curve. Subsequently, Tukey’s statistic was used to compare specific activities of the Dabrafenib PMs. This protocol complied with OECD guideline 471 ( OECD, 1997a) and ICH guidelines ( ICH-S2A, 1995 and ICH-S2B, 1997). The IVMNT was performed as described by McAdam et al. (2011). Briefly, duplicate V79 cell cultures in DMEM supplemented with 10% foetal calf serum, were pulsed with test or control samples for 3 h followed by a 17 h recovery, with and without S9, or for 20 h without S9. At least six dose levels for each PM were scored for cytotoxicity and for micronucleus formation in bi-nucleate cells, on duplicate slides. Differences between micronucleated binucleated cells (MnBn) at the different test concentrations and the solvent controls were subjected to paired t-tests. This method complied with OECD draft guideline 487 ( OECD, 2004). The MLA was performed as described by McAdam et al. (2011), using L5178Y thymidine kinase (tk) +/- cells cultured in Roswell Park Memorial medium (RPMI). There were two independent experiments using a 3 h exposure with S9; and two independent experiments used 3 and 24 h exposures without S9; Cyclopamine each with duplicate treatment cultures. Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease After

a two day expression period, cells were grown for eight days, and then trifluoro-thymidine (TFT) resistant colonies were counted. The method complied with OECD Guideline 476 (OECD, 1997b). PMs were compared in terms of the slopes of their responses. When PMs were tested at eight different concentrations in the Neutral Red assay, in four different experiments, each PM showed a concentration-related decrease in percent viability, which enabled IC50 values to be calculated. The IC50 values obtained for the different PMs in all four experiments are given in Table

2. It is clear that, for all of the PMs, when tested in the same experiment at equivalent concentrations corrected for nicotine-free dry particulate matter (NFDPM), the IC50 values were very similar. It is noticeable that there was variation in relative cytotoxicities between different experiments. Also, in several instances, the difference observed between IC50 values for the same extract across four experiments was greater than the differences between the IC50 values for the different extracts in the same experiment. When the mean IC50 concentrations (from the four experiments) for each PM were analysed by one-way ANOVA, there were no statistically significant differences (p = 0.960). The IC50s of the PMs from cigarettes with BT tobacco (W862–W864) were not different from those of PMs from cigarettes without BT tobacco (W860–W861). The inclusion of BT tobacco in W862 did not change the IC50, compared to its control (W861).

The samples were labelled as belonging to one of three models of

The samples were labelled as belonging to one of three models of lung inflammation: bacterial infection, lung injury and fibrosis, or Th2 response (allergic airway inflammation). Probes with common GENBANK

accessions were collapsed to a single measurement for each sample using the mean. Using the common accession numbers, a prediction model using shrunken centroids was estimated. Cross-validation of the nearest shrunken centroid classifier Roxadustat order was conducted to identify an appropriate threshold. PAMR implements 10-fold cross-validation. This involves dividing the samples into ten approximately equal-size parts ensuring that the classes are distributed proportionally. Ten-fold cross-validation works by fitting a model on 90% of the samples and then predicting the class labels of the remaining 10%. This procedure is repeated ten times, with each part playing the role of the test samples and the errors on all ten parts added together to compute the overall error. A threshold of 2 was selected, yielding a classifier with 753 GENBANK accessions. The means of the nine CBNP treatment conditions were then classified using the estimated prediction model. Functional analysis was conducted to establish molecular perturbations that were in common or discrepant between CBNP exposed mice and inflammatory

lung disease models. The analysis was conducted on genes that were common between CBNP and each lung disease model, then again Bupivacaine for genes that were unique to CBNP, using a cut-off of FDR-adjusted p < 0.1 and a fold-change > 1.5 for all datasets. The less STA-9090 cell line stringent cut-off was employed for disease models because of the low power in several of the datasets. DAVID Bioinformatics

Resources 6.7 was used to identify enriched biological functions from terms with similar genes and biological meaning ( Huang et al., 2009a and Huang et al., 2009b). DAVID Biological functions with enrichment scores > 1.3 were considered significant, in accordance with DAVID recommendations ( Huang et al., 2009a). Clusters with enrichment scores > 1.3 in our analysis contained at least one gene ontology term or pathway for which the Benjamini-corrected p-value was ≤0.05. In order to predict potential disease outcomes of relevance to humans, gene expression profiles were mined against genomic data repositories. Disease prediction analysis was done in NextBio ( using the high dose exposure profiles as differentially expressed genes were identified at all time-points for this dose. Data from CBNP exposed mice were compared to curated datasets to identify disease studies with similar gene profiles, gene ranking and consistency. Pairwise gene signature correlations and rank-based enrichment statistics were employed in the calculation of NextBio scores for each disease.

In addition, it is a speculated that the

“Gulf War Syndro

In addition, it is a speculated that the

“Gulf War Syndrome” might be caused by the systematic shift of T helper (Th) 2 cytokines by Th1 cytokines because the clinical symptoms are markedly similar to those of autoimmune diseases (Rook and Zumla, 1997). In vitro, after cluster of differentiation (CD) 4+ T cells and macrophages are exposed to DU, there is increased expression of IL-5 and IL-10, which strongly suggests a shift to Th2 cells during the initial stages of T cell differentiation ( Wan et al., 2006). For other heavy metals, such as lead, studies on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells also revealed a shift to Th2 cells during the immune response ( Gao et al., 2007). In this study, we hypothesised that DU may modulate immune cell cytokine expression, especially Th1 and Th2 cytokines, to influence the immune system function. Selleck Metformin However,

Dublineau et al. (2006) reported find more that, there was no biological consequences in the cytokine expression [IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, interferon (IFN)-γ, TNF-a] in Peyer’s patches and in mesenteric lymph nodes of rats after chronic ingestion of DU by drinking water (40 mg/l). Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish a mouse model in which mice were exposed to long-term ingestion of DU-containing feed, to evaluate Amisulpride the overall impact of DU exposure on the entire immune system of the mice after 4 months, and to verify whether the DU exposure caused an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines. We set up 4 different dose groups based on the DU concentration. The control group consumed normal feed with a uranium concentration of approximately 0 mg/kg. The uranium concentration that was used in the DU3 group (3 mg/kg) was mainly based on the average concentration of uranium in the natural soil (3 mg/kg; Bleise

et al., 2003). The uranium concentration that was used in the DU30 groups (30 mg/kg) was mainly based on the concentration range of uranium in the topsoil of the western Kosovo region (0.69–31.47 mg/kg; Di Lella et al., 2005) and on the uranium concentration (40 mg/l) that is the uranium concentration commonly used in drinking water in studies (Wade-Gueye et al., 2012 and Barillet et al., 2011) of chronic exposure [which was twice the highest environmental concentration in Finland (Juntunen, 1991)]. Finally, in accordance with the 10-fold uranium concentration gradient for each dose group, the DU300 groups were exposed to 300 mg/kg; this 300 mg/kg concentration was still far lower than that of the highest uranium concentration in the topsoil of the Kosovo region (assessed in November 2000), which was approximately 18,000 mg/kg (Sansone et al., 2001).

It is anticipated that

It is anticipated that the vast amount of data generated using this approach can be used to build, feed and validate computational models of bone which incorporate all of the different length scales, from the organ-level to the cellular level [64] and [72]. By combining computational and experimental approaches in this way it is hoped that the move towards a more complete understanding of the osteocyte and bone biology in general will be expedited. The current state of our knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms which underpin the mechanical response of bone is at best fragmented. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway [73] and [74] has received much attention

and is now recognized as an important regulator of bone mass and bone cell function, however it still remains to be determined how this pathway interacts with other key molecular components, which include RANKL, sclerostin [75], [76] and [77], nitric oxide [78], prostaglandin this website [79] and the many others identified in the in vivo loading studies presented here. Whilst

in vivo models exploiting comprehensive gene expression tools may have identified a number of candidate genes/proteins how these different elements interact remains a probabilistic construct. If definitive answers are to be found synergistic approaches will be required using the technologies discussed here. In summary, advanced techniques for imaging osteocytes ex vivo, in situ, and in vivo combined Gefitinib molecular weight with localized quantification of gene expression will be key to unraveling the function of these fascinating cells. Factor into this the emerging field of multiscale computational modeling and it becomes clear that the tools are now at our disposal to significantly enhance our understanding of osteocytes in bone biology. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Authors

gratefully acknowledge funding from (2010_071, DJW/RM), the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF 205321_132779, PS/RM) and the National Institutes of Health (R21-AR054449, RO1-AR051517 and PO1-AR46798, SLD). “
“Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI or brittle bone disease) is a hereditary disease which results in extreme bone fragility. Mutation of the genes coding for collagen type 1 (col-1) is the main cause of OI, resulting in a quantitative or qualitative alteration of col-1 production. This leads to extremely active bone remodelling, disorganized woven bone tissue, reduced trabecular and cortical bone mass and degraded bone mechanical properties [1]. There is currently no direct cure for OI and only symptomatic treatments are available, such as physiotherapy to increase postural strength, surgery to correct bone deformation and bisphosphonate treatment.

It is important to

It is important to Tacrolimus mouse present both treatment options to the family in a balanced way, taking into account not only the SEGA, but the specific individual with the variance of TSC associated comorbidities. Currently there is no evidence for the superiority of one treatment over the other, unless there are specific factors that favor one treatment over another as discussed previously. SEGA patients should be discussed in a multidisciplinary team including neurologists/oncologists and neurosurgeons to thoroughly weigh pros and cons of the respective treatment modality before

finalizing an individualized treatment recommendation. The 2012 International TSC Clinical Consensus Conference was sponsored and organized by the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance. The conference was supported by generous sponsors who donated funds to the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance without playing a role in the planning or having a presence at the conference or any influence on the resulting recommendations: the Rothberg Institute for Childhood Diseases, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Sandra and Brian O’Brien, and Questcor Pharmaceuticals. “
“In the review article “Childhood onset of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy” by Rosales et al. in the January 2012 issue, Roula al-Dahhak was omitted as a co-primary author. The corrected citation appears below. Rosales XQ, al-Dahhak R, Tsao C-Y. Childhood onset of limb-girdle

muscular dystrophy. Pediatric Neurology 2012; 46:13–23. “
“In the article “Marked Improvement in Segawa Syndrome After l-dopa Alisertib price and Selegiline Treatment” by Yosunkaya et al. in the May 2010 issue (2010;42:348-35025-28; doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2010.01.008), an acknowledgment was omitted. The acknowledgment should have stated “This work was supported by Istanbul University research fund under project number UDP-3595/09042009.” The authors regret the error. “
“In the article “APOE Gene ε Polymorphism Does Not Determine Predisposition to Ischemic Stroke in Children”

by Balcerzyk et al. in the July 2010 issue (2010;43:25-28; doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2010.02.016), the author line was incorrect. The corrected author line and affiliations appear below. The authors regret the errors. Anna Balcerzyk, PhD*, Iwona Żak, PhD*, Paweł Niemiec, PhD*, Ilona Kopyta, PhD†, Ewa Emich-Widera, PhD†, Tomasz Iwanicki, MSc*, Ewa Pilarska, PhD‡, Karolina Pienczk-Ręcławowicz, MD‡, Marek Kacinski, PhD,§ Jerzy Wendorff, PhD,¶ Joanna Jachowicz-Jeszka, PhD From the *Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, School of Health Care, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; †Department of Neuropediatrics, School of Medicine in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; ‡Department of Developmental Neurology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland; §Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Neurology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland; and ¶Department of Neurology, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital-Research Institute, Łódź, Poland.

Notably this represents the first stable and functional CuHis3 si

Notably this represents the first stable and functional CuHis3 site in aqueous solution. A type 1 copper

site has been designed within a four-stranded α-helical bundle (generated from a single peptide strand) with two His, one Cys and an exogenous fourth weakly interacting axial ligand. The nature of this fourth ligand is crucial in establishing a type 1 or 2 site, and so it was necessary to prevent water access. Like type 1 sites in native redox proteins, the mimic displayed fast electron reaction rates [20]. Various studies looking at the binding of heavy metals to thiol rich sites in the hydrophobic interior of coiled coils or helical bundles have been reported [21, 22 and 23], as these provide important insight into heavy metal biochemistry, and have allowed challenging and fundamental questions about metals in biology to be answered using these Rapamycin supplier simplified scaffolds. For example, insight into metal exchange dynamics and the mechanism by which metal ions are sequestered into thiol sites [24]; whether the location of a metal site along a coiled coil alters its chemistry [17•• and 25]; the importance of ligand preorganisation for metal ion binding to symmetric

a or d substituted sites [ 26], or an asymmetric equivalent generated in a Pexidartinib in vivo single chain three-helix bundle [ 27]; and the importance of stereochemically active lone pairs (demonstrated for As(III) and Pb(II)) and the role second coordination sphere residues play in accommodating these, thereby dictating the binding mode [ 28]. The recent report of the MRIP 207Pb NMR chemical shift of a water soluble 207PbCys3 site, is of huge significance considering the importance of these sites in lead toxicity and the wide chemical shift range. Intriguingly 207Pb

NMR was shown to be capable of discriminating between similar but not identical PbCys3 sites, and as such could be a very powerful tool in further understanding both metalloprotein design and lead toxicity [ 29•]. The design of multinuclear metal ion sites can be more challenging. However, an important success is the due ferri (two iron) family of designed proteins [30]. These have been redesigned to introduce O2-dependent phenol oxidase activity, by engineering an active site cavity in the interior of either a four-stranded heterotetrameric coiled coil [31] or a four-helix bundle (helix-loop-helix dimer) [32] (see Figure 3A). In addition to Fe, the latter was also able to bind Zn, Co or Mn [33]. The activity was then reprogrammed from the oxidation of hydroquinones to the N-hydroxylation of arylamines by four mutations, notably the addition of a His ligand in the active site (inspired by the active site of AurF) [ 34••]. A different dinuclear Fe complex, a mimic of the hydrogenase active site, has been linked to an α-helix through a non-natural residue.

The images

The images Epacadostat datasheet are reconstructed on a 128 × 128 pixel grid corresponding to a resolution of 0.2 mm × 0.2 mm × 1 mm with

a 25 mm FOV. The sequence is run with a two-step phase cycle to eliminate the DC offset and the total acquisition time for the image was 2 min. The second UTE sequence is run using the same parameters, however, only one average with 32 spokes of data is acquired and a 10° tip angle is used to further reduce the acquisition time. The total acquisition time for this sequence was 500 ms. Slice selection was validated using a uniform sample of doped water and the pulse sequence shown in Fig. 3. The slice select gradient was set to 5.1 G cm−1 and the acquisition gradient was set to 11.7 G cm−1. The homospoil pulses were set to 22.0 G cm−1 and had a duration of 1 ms with a 5 ms delay before and after the 180° hard pulse. The SW was set to 106 and 512 complex points were collected. As a comparison for the UTE image, a spin echo image was run for each sample. The spin echo used a TE of selleck inhibitor 3 ms with a resolution of 0.2 mm × 0.2 mm × 1 mm. A 512 μs Gaussian pulse was used for slice selection and the SW was set to 105. The total acquisition time for the image was 4 min. In the following, UTE is first simulated using the Bloch equations to demonstrate

the concept and illustrate the artifacts that commonly arise during slice selection. The gradient optimization and slice selection are then explored. The accuracy of UTE image reconstruction is demonstrated using a challenging sample with a complex three dimensional structure. The benefits of UTE are then shown by imaging two samples, one of cork and one of rubber. Finally, the potential for dynamic imaging is explored using CS. Fig. 4 shows a simulation of the Bloch equations for a typical Gaussian slice selection. A Gaussian r.f. excitation pulse is used with a gradient on for the duration of the r.f. pulse. The gradient is then applied in a negative direction for half of the time of the r.f. pulse with the same magnitude as during the r.f. pulse. The negative gradient acts to rephase the spins that have been dephased during

the second half of the r.f. pulse. The slice selected by this sequence is a Gaussian shape as expected. The slice selection for UTE attempts Liothyronine Sodium to emulate the shape of the slice selected using this traditional method of slice selection, but using a half Gaussian pulse to reduce TE. Fig. 5 shows the equivalent slice selection performed using UTE. UTE uses a half Gaussian pulse for soft pulse excitation, which eliminates the need for a negative refocusing gradient. However, the half-Gaussian pulse results in the formation of a complex dispersion mode excitation profile. To select a Gaussian slice, the acquisition must be run twice, once with a positive slice select gradient and once with a negative slice select gradient. The imaginary slice profile for these two acquisitions will be in anti-phase, as shown in Fig.