ad vanced glycation end product dependent pathways and promote release of proinflammatory factors, such as TNF, IL 1B and IL 6, which might in turn aggravate the disease. In postmortem brains from AD pa tients and animals, most reactive microglia are located around dense core AB plaques and elevated proinflam matory factors are also found in those full report brains which re veal the negative impact of neuroinflammation on AD progression. Therefore, therapeutic drugs based on inhibiting microglial overactivation with less to icity seem to be promising. SCM Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 198, a unique single compound e isting only in Herbaleonuri, has been previously found to improve anti o idant capacity of myocardium, promote angiogenesis in ischemic myocardium and ameliorate endothelial dys function caused by hyperlipidemia.
During 2010 to 2011, SCM 198 was surprisingly found to be effective in stroke and Parkinsons disease models via modulating mitochondrial functions and the redo state of Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the brain, respectively, which encouraged us to continuously e Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries plore its Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries possible therapeutic potential in AD models. AB peptides induce neuroto icity in multiple ways, in cluding o idative stress, apoptosis or inflammation. Meanwhile, SCM 198 has very good antio idant, and anti apoptotic neuro and cardioprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, for investigating possible anti neuroinflammatory mechanisms of SCM 198 in microglia, lipopolysaccharide, which is a very com mon agent for neuroinflammation studies, or aged AB1 40 peptides, was used to induce inflammatory responses in vitro.
LPS, a component of Gram negative bacterial cell wall, could activate TLR4 signalling, activate micro glia and promote production of proinflammatory cyto kines and related signaling pathways. For in vivo studies, AB1 40 injected Sprague Dawley rats were used Dacomitinib to investigate the overall neuroprotective effect of SCM 198 on cognitive impairments and microglial over activation. Our data indicated that SCM 198 could e ert neuroprotective and anti inflammatory effects both in AB1 40 injected rats and overactivated microglia, possibly via inhibition of NF ��B activation and c Jun N terminal kinase pathways. This is also the first time that great hope could be placed on this new compound for its possible therapeutic potential in AD therapy in the near future. Methods Reagents 3 2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium brom ide, BSA were purchased from Amresco.
Ibuprofen, poly d lysine, phosphatase inhibitor cocktails, sulforhodamine B and LPS were purchased from Sigma Aldrich. In hibitors of mitogen activated protein kinases were from Cayman. Plasmocin was from Invivogen. Primers were syn thesized by Sangon and all reagents for real time reverse transcription selleck catalog polymerase chain reaction and cell culture were from Takara and Gibco, respectively. Donepezil hydrochloride was sup plied by Energy Chemical. SCM 198 was synthesized as previously described. For in vitro studies, IBU, DON and SCM 198 were dissolved in dimethyl sulfo ide at