Together, our results indicate that F90G5-3 is of potential value

Together, our results indicate that F90G5-3 is of potential value as a diagnostic immunoreagent for BoNT/A capture assay development and bio-forensic analysis.”
“Visual imagery can powerfully shape perceptions of risks as is clearly demonstrated by research on the use of graphic warnings on cigarette packs. Government efforts to counteract public fears of vaccines could

harness this phenomenon by using public information campaigns that present visually the effects of vaccine-preventable MLN2238 diseases. Visual representations can also be used to communicate the relative risks of vaccines, which are generally negligible, and of the diseases they prevent. Such initiatives have the policy advantage of minimizing the sense LY2835219 solubility dmso of government intrusion that measures such as vaccine mandates and social restrictions could engender and the legal advantage of avoiding claims of infringement on civil liberties. Government policy should take advantage

of this important and accessible tool.”
“A new alkaloid (1), together with five known compounds (2-6), has been isolated from the stem of Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham. The structure of the new compound was elucidated as 3-isobutyl-tetrahydro-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-2,5-dione on the basis of physical and chemical evidence and spectral analysis. Compound 6 was obtained for the first time from the Sparganium genus.”
“A new synthetic approach was developed to the preparation of functional derivatives of 3-(1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-1H-indoles starting with a synthetically available 3-[5-(chloromethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]-1H-indole. The versatility of the developed strategy was demonstrated in the synthesis of this kind compounds with a wide range of substituents.”
“Nutritional supplementation may provide a viable treatment alternative in patients with psoriasis Randomized, controlled

trials have shown the effectiveness of topical vitamin A and D derivatives, intravenous omega 3 fatty acids, oral mositol and various combined therapies Dual therapies of ultraviolet B phototherapy and fish oil, retinoids and check details thiazolidinediones and cyclosporine and a low calorie diet were effective in the treatment of psoriasis in randomized controlled trials This contribution also reviews the potential negative effect of alcohol and the potential positive effects of vitamin Bp, selenium, retinoic acid metabolism-blocking agents, and a gluten-free diet in the treatment of psoriasis (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved”
“Background: A large number of longitudinal studies of population-based ageing cohorts are in progress internationally, but the insights from these studies into the risk and protective factors for cognitive ageing and conditions like mild cognitive impairment and dementia have been inconsistent. Some of the problems confounding this research can be reduced by harmonising and pooling data across studies.

A conserved network of core cell-cycle kinases and phosphatases m

A conserved network of core cell-cycle kinases and phosphatases modulate HJ metabolism by exerting spatial and temporal control over the activities of two structure-selective nucleases: yeast Mus81-Mms4 (human MUS81-EME1) and Yen1 (human GEN1). These regulatory cycles operate to establish the sequential activation of HJ processing enzymes, implementing a hierarchy in pathway usage that ensure the elimination of chromosomal interactions which would

otherwise interfere with chromosome segregation. Mus81-Mms4/EME1 and Yen1/GEN1 emerge to define a special class of enzymes, evolved to satisfy the cellular need of safeguarding the completion of DNA repair when on the verge of chromosome segregation. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Curcumin, the active Selleck Caspase inhibitor component of turmeric, has been shown to protect against carcinogenesis and prevent tumor development VX-809 ic50 in cancer. To enhance its potency, we tested the efficacy of synthetic curcumin analogues, known as FLLL11 and FLLL12, in cancer cells. We examined the impact of FLLL11 and FLLL12 on cell viability in eight different breast and prostate cancer cell lines. FLLL11 and FLLL12 (IC50 values 0.3-5.7 and 0.3-3.8 mu mol/L, respectively)

were substantially more potent than curcumin (IC50 values between 14.4-50 mu mol/L). FLLL11 and FLLL12 were also found to inhibit AKT phosphorylation and downregulate the expression of HER2/neu. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that FLLL11 and FLLL12 inhibit phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, an oncogene frequently found to be persistently active in many cancer types. The inhibition of STAT3 signaling was confirmed by the inhibition HIF inhibitor of STAT3 DNA binding and STAT3 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, FLLL11 and FLLL12 were more effective than curcumin in inhibiting cell migration and colony formation in soft agar as well as inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. These results indicate that FLLL11 and FLLL12 exhibit more potent activities

than curcumin on the inhibition of STAT3, AKT, and HER-2/neu, as well as inhibit cancer cell growth and migration, and may thus have translational potential as chemopreventive or therapeutic agents for breast and prostate cancers. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 1719-1727).”
“In cold wet weather, mammals face hypothermia if they cannot dry themselves. By rapidly oscillating their bodies, through a process similar to shivering, furry mammals can dry themselves within seconds. We use high-speed videography and fur particle tracking to characterize the shakes of 33 animals (16 animals species and five dog breeds), ranging over four orders of magnitude in mass from mice to bears. We here report the power law relationship between shaking frequency f and body mass M to be f similar to M-0.22, which is close to our prediction of f similar to M-0.

8-75 0%) Previous discharge summaries (74%) and past test result

8-75.0%). Previous discharge summaries (74%) and past test results (61%) were most frequently accessed and junior doctors were more likely to access electronic past history information than their senior colleagues (x(2) = 20.717, d.f. = 1, p smaller than 0.001).

Conclusions: The integrated EDIS created new ways of working for ED clinicians. Such changes could hold positive implications for: time taken to reach a diagnosis and deliver treatments; length of stay; patient outcomes and experiences. (C) 2014 ZD1839 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Fluid shear stress generated by steady laminar blood flow protects vessels from atherosclerosis. Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are fluid shear stress responsive genes and key mediators in flow anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic actions. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying flow induction of KLF2 and eNOS remain largely unknown. Here, we show a novel role of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in flow-mediated KLF2 and eNOS expression. We found for the first time that fluid shear stress stimulated HDAC5 phosphorylation and nuclear

export in endothelial cells through a calcium/calmodulin-dependent pathway. Consequently, flow induced the dissociation of HDAC5 and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) and enhanced MEF2 transcriptional activity, which leads to PKC412 chemical structure expression of KLF2 and eNOS. Adenoviral overexpression of a HDAC5 phosphorylation defective mutant (Ser259/Ser498 were replaced by Ala259/Ala498, HDAC5-S/A), which shows resistance to flow-induced nuclear export, suppressed selleck chemicals flow-mediated MEF2 transcriptional activity and expression of KLF2 and eNOS. Importantly,

HDAC5-S/A attenuated the flow-inhibitory effect on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Taken together, our results reveal that phosphorylation-dependent derepression of HDAC5 mediates flow-induced KLF2 and eNOS expression as well as flow anti-inflammation, and suggest that HDAC5 could be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerosis. (Blood. 2010; 115(14): 2971-2979)”
“Proteasomes are the main producers of Ag loaded onto MHC class I molecules. Following IFN-gamma stimulation however, the constitutive subunits of the proteasome are replaced by the immunosubunits low molecular weight protein 2 (LMP2), multicatalytic endopeptidase complex-like 1 and low molecular weight protein 7 (LMP7), which generally heighten the immunogenecity of proteasome generated epitopes. Given that Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas’ disease, elicits a T(helper)1 response from its host if the infection is to be contained, the aim of this study was to verify whether this parasite modulates J774 and B10R mouse macrophage (Mu phi) immunoproteasome subunit and MHC class I expressions and, if so, identify the mechanism(s) responsible for that modulation. Results show that T.

Oedema of the dermis and a mixed infiltrate, with eosinophils, ne

Oedema of the dermis and a mixed infiltrate, with eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes, in the papillary AZD1480 and upper reticular dermis, were also observed. Direct immunofluorescence was negative in all patients. Paederus sp. should also be considered in temperate climates as a possible aetiological agent in cases of acute dermatitis.”
“In the present study, we determined the potential anti-nociceptive activity of vitexin, a C-glycosylated flavone, by conducting

some acute nociceptive tests in mice. Centrally mediated anti-nociceptive effect was evaluated by hot-plate and tail-clip tests, whereas peripherally mediated anti-nociception was assessed by acetic acid-induced writhing tests. Rota-rod test was performed to evaluate the probable effect of vitexin on the motor coordination of mice. Vitexin administered

orally at doses of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg significantly increased the reaction times of animals in the hot-plate and tail-clip tests and reduced the number of acetic acid-induced writhes and stretches in writhing tests, which clearly indicated the presence of the anti-nociceptive effect. This effect disappeared by pretreatment with naloxone (a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, 5.48 mg/kg, i.p.), which indicated the involvement of opioid mechanisms in anti-nociception. We evaluated the contribution of mu, delta, and kappa subtypes of opioid receptors to the anti-nociceptive activity by using naloxonazine (7 mg/kg, s.c.), naltrindole 10058-F4 (0.99 mg/kg, i.p.), and nor-binaltorphimine (1.03 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. Pretreatment using these antagonists reversed the anti-nociceptive effect of vitexin in all the nociceptive tests, which indicated that mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors contributed to the anti-nociceptive effect of this flavonoid. Falling latencies of mice in the Rota-rod test did not change upon the administration of vitexin, which indicated that vitexin showed specific anti-nociceptive effect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on centrally and peripherally mediated anti-nociceptive effect of vitexin via opioid-related mechanisms. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”

The relationship between perceived barriers and prospective URMC-099 use of mental health care among veterans was examined. Methods: The sample included Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (N=305) who endorsed symptoms of depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or alcohol misuse at intake to a postdeployment clinic between May 2005 and August 2009. Data on receipt of adequate treatment (nine or more mental health visits in the year after intake) were obtained from a VA database. Results: Adequate treatment was more likely for women (odds ratio [OR]=4.82, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.37-16.99, p=.014) and for those with more severe symptoms of PTSD (OR=1.03, CI=1.01-1.05, p=.003) and depression (OR=1.06, CI=1.01-1.11, p=.01).


that alloantibodies to antigens in the KEL family a


that alloantibodies to antigens in the KEL family are among the most clinically significant, we developed a murine model with RBC-specific expression of the human KEL antigen to evaluate the impact of maternal/fetal KEL incompatibility. After exposure to fetal KEL RBCs during successive pregnancies with KEL-positive males, 21 of 21 wild-type female mice developed anti-KEL alloantibodies; intrauterine fetal anemia and/or demise occurred in a subset of KEL-positive pups born to wild type, but not agammaglobulinemic mothers. Similar to previous observations in humans, pregnancy-associated alloantibodies were detrimental in a transfusion setting, and transfusion-associated alloantibodies were detrimental in a pregnancy

setting. This is the first pregnancy-associated Staurosporine HDFN model described to date, which will serve as a platform to develop targeted therapies to prevent and/or mitigate the dangers of RBC alloantibodies to fetuses and newborns.”
“Background: The aim of this study was to ascertain whether expressions of adipokines in the myocardium or their circulating levels can provide prognostic information concerning patients with chronic heart failure (HF).\n\nMethods and Results: Circulating levels of 3 adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, and resistin), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured in 96 patients with chronic HF. Major adverse cardiac events ERK inhibitor research buy (MACE) involving death, heart transplantation, and hospitalization with deteriorating HF during a median follow-up period of 288 days were recorded. From that GSK2126458 inhibitor group, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting studies of the myocardial tissues were conducted on 7 patients with end-stage

HF undergoing heart transplantation. The levels of the 3 adipokines significantly correlated with that of NT-proBNP; however, only adiponectin concentration increased with the severity of HF, after correction for body mass index. Cox proportional hazards analyses revealed that high levels of corrected adiponectin were predictive of the development of MACE (hazard ratio, 2.947, P=0.037). Moreover, adiponectin was significantly expressed in the myocardium, and its tissue expression positively correlated with the severity of HF.\n\nConclusions: This study showed that adiponectin is associated with clinical outcomes and severity of HF. Further research into the precise mechanisms of these adipokine derangements in HF is important to help clarify the exact role of adipokines in the pathophysiology of HF. (Circ J 2012; 76: 2139-2147)”
“Expression level of integrin alpha 5 in tumor cells has been indicated to be involved in cell proliferation and organ-specific metastasis We previously demonstrated that ITGA5 expression was downregulated in the high invasive MDA-MB-468 cells compared with other breast cancer cell lines.

Application of the reducing agent dithiolthreitol to hippocampal

Application of the reducing agent dithiolthreitol to hippocampal slices increased the NMDAR-mediated component of the synaptic response in SOD1 + GFP animals relative to animals that overexpress SOD1 + CAT indicating that the effect of antioxidant enzyme expression on NMDAR function was because of a shift in the redox environment. The results suggest that overexpression of neuronal SOD1 and CAT in middle age

may provide a model for examining the role of oxidative stress in senescent physiology and the progression of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Caesarean GSK1120212 mw section rates have increased in parallel with those of obesity. Decreased levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived metabolic hormone present in abundant concentrations in cord blood and breast milk, have been documented in association with obesity in children and adults. Objective: To determine whether the mode of delivery affects adiponectin concentrations in cord blood of healthy

term infants. Methods:The cord blood adiponectin concentration was measured in 159 consecutive term infants, of whom 131 (82.4%) were born by vaginal delivery, 15 (9.4%) by nonelective caesarean section and 13 (8.2%) by elective caesarean section. Results: The mean adiponectin level PF-04929113 mw was significantly lower in infants born by elective Elafibranor cost caesarean section compared with those born by vaginal delivery: 15.3 mu g/ml (SD = 6.8) and 21.6 mu g/ml (SD = 7.3), respectively (p = 0.015). This difference remained significant after adjustment for the infants’ gender and birth weight as well as maternal weight and weight gain during pregnancy. Conclusion: Elective caesarean section may carry ra risk of obesity independently of maternal risk factors. (c) 2014S.Karger AG, Basel”
“Truncated hemoglobins (trHbs) are widely distributed in bacteria and plants and have been found in some unicellular eukaryotes. Phylogenetic analysis based on protein sequences shows that trHbs branch into three groups, designated N (or I), O (or II), and P

(or III). Most trHbs are involved in the O-2/NO chemistry and/or oxidation/reduction function, permitting the survival of the microorganism in the host. Here, a detailed comparative analysis of kinetics and/or thermodynamics of (i) ferrous Mycobacterium tubertulosis trHbs N and O (Mt-trHbN and Mt-trHbO, respectively), and Campylobacter jejuni trHb (CjtrHbP) nitrosylation, (ii) nitrite-mediated nitrosylation of ferrous Mt-trHbN, Mt-trHbO, and Cj-trHbP, and (iii) NO-based reductive nitrosylation of ferric Mt-trHbN, Mt-trHbO, and Cj-trHbP is reported. Ferrous and ferric Mt-trHbN and Cj-trHbP display a very high reactivity towards NO; however, the conversion of nitrite to NO is facilitated primarily by ferrous Mt-trHbN.

Finally, by combining discovery and genotyping,

Finally, by combining discovery and genotyping, AC220 molecular weight we identified six potential de novo CNVs in two family trios.”
“Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) DNA is regularly found in around 50% of all cervical carcinomas. Variants of this type have been found associated with different risks for cervical cancer development. Presence of HPV 16 variants

in Colombia has not been previously reported. The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility of non-radioactive PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism) analysis for determination of variability of ORF of E6, variability in the enhancer sequence of the LCR, and for establishment of the distribution of HPV 16 variants in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix in Colombian women. Biopsies from 59 patients at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INC) in Bogota (Colombia)

were collected. HPV detection was performed using universal primers. HPV 16 variants were detected by non-radioactive single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing. HPV 16 was detected in 57.6% of the tumors. The European branch was identified in 88.2% of the samples with the E-G350 class being the most prevalent variant KU-57788 inhibitor (41.1%). The Asian-American branch was identified in 8.8% of the samples. Within this group it was possible to distinguish between c and a classes. It was not possible to determine the branch in 2.9% of the cases. A nucleotide transition (G to A) at position 7521 was the most prevalent variation (80%) found in the enhancer find more sequence of the LCR region. Conclusion: A non-radioactive PCR-SSCP analysis allowed us to distinguish between European and Asian-American branches of HPV 16, and to distinguish among classes in squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix in Colombia. This method is an excellent alternative that can be used as a screening

tool for identification of HPV 16 variants.”
“Flaviviruses have a single-strand, positive-polarity RNA genome that encodes a single polyprotein. The polyprotein is comprised of seven nonstructural (NS) and three structural proteins. The N- and C-terminal parts of NS3 represent the serine protease and the RNA helicase, respectively. The cleavage of the polyprotein by the protease is required to produce the individual viral proteins, which assemble a new viral progeny. Conversely, inactivation of the protease blocks viral infection. Both the protease and the helicase are conserved among flaviviruses. As a result, NS3 is a promising drug target in flaviviral infections. This article examines the West Nile virus NS3 with an emphasis on the structural and functional parameters of the protease, the helicase and their cofactors.

Their small distributions and possibility for future habitat loss

Their small distributions and possibility for future habitat loss make these species of conservation

concern. The taxonomic status of a recently described species Bradypodion nkandlae (Raw & Brothers 2008) is found to be con-specific with B. nemorale and is herewith synonymised.”
“Forest ecosystems in Europe have been affected by human activities for many centuries. Here we investigate, if current forest soil organic carbon stocks are influenced not only by present ecological conditions and land use, but also by land management in the past. Based on the forest management history of the Hainich-Dun region a total of 130 inventory plots were selected in age-class forest and selectively cut forests under present management practice. The age-class forest originated from (1) former SBE-β-CD in vivo coppice-with-standards, (2) former selectively cut forests and (3) afforestation. The selectively cut forest Proteasome inhibitor contains “early regulated” forest where selective cutting has been practised for centuries, and forest, which was managed as coppice-with-standards through the 18th and the 19th centuries. We hypothesise that past management influences present soil organic carbon stocks. Density fractionation of soils in three physical fractions (HF: heavy fraction, o-LF: occluded light fraction, f-LF: free light fraction)

was carried out to increase the probability of detecting long-lasting effects of management history. Go-6983 No detectable differences in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, as measured in kg In-2 ground area, of the mineral soil and the heavy fractions, were found between present and historical forest management types (average total organic carbon (OC) stocks of mineral soil: 9.7 +/- 2.3 kg m(-2); average OC stocks of the organic layer: 0.5 +/- 0.3 kg m(-2); average total inorganic carbon (IC) stocks of mineral soil:

5.0 +/- 3.7 kg m(-2)). The variation of samples was overlapping. There was no consistent trend with management history. The upper mineral soil (0-30 cm) contained about 74% of total SOC, with f-LF contributing 24% in 0-10 cm and 20% in 10-30 cm, and o-LF 9% in 0-10 cm and 6% in 10-30 cm. The HF contained 85% (0-10 cm) and 86% (10-30 cm) of SOC stocks in the bulk soil. There was a significant decrease of total SOC stocks in the 0-10 and 10-30 cm depth increment with increasing abundance of beech. Mean C-14 concentrations in the HF were 102.0 pMC in 0-10 cm, and 93.4 pMC in 10-30 cm, corresponding to a mean 14C age of around 100 years and 550 years, respectively. Modelling C-dynamics based on the present measurements reveals that disturbances depleting 50% of soil C-stocks would equilibrate after 80 years. Thus, there is no memory effect of 19th century forest management. We conclude that past and present management has no detectable effect on present SOC. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

There was also a positive correlation between MIF levels and clin

There was also a positive correlation between MIF levels and clinical

severity and disease duration. ConclusionMIF seems to have an essential role in the etiopathogenesis of AA. So, it is considered to be a promising target CBL0137 purchase in the therapy of autoimmune diseases and as a future predictor of alopecia activity. Anti-MIF therapy might be added as one of the new biological treatments for AA.”
“Partial agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) reportedly reverse insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this work, a novel non-thiazolidinedione-partial PPAR gamma ligand, MDCCCL1636 [N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)-3-mercapto-2-methylpropanamide], was investigated. The compound displayed partial agonist activity in biochemical and cell-based

transactivation assays and reversed insulin resistance. MDCCCL1636 showed a potential antidiabetic effect on an insulin-resistance model of human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). High-fat diet-fed streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with MDCCCL1636 for 56 days displayed reduced fasting serum glucose and reversed dyslipidemia and pancreatic damage without significant weight gain. Furthermore, MDCCCL1636 had lower toxicity in vivo and in vitro than pioglitazone. MDCCCL1636 also potentiated glucose consumption and inhibited the impairment in insulin signaling targets, such as AKT, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, and glycogen synthase, in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Overall, our results suggest that MDCCCL1636 is a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.”
“This paper presents the R package GDC-0068 mw Bafilomycin A1 pocrm for implementing and simulating the partial order continual reassessment method (PO-CRM; [1,2]) in Phase I trials of combinations of agents. The aim of this

article is to illustrate, through examples of the pocrm package, how the PO-CRM works and how its operating characteristics can inform clinical trial investigators. This should promote the use of the PO-CRM in designing and conducting dose-finding Phase I trials of combinations of agents. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“PURPOSE. The authors recently showed that the retinal circulation can be accessed by transfemoral endovascular catheterization. The purpose of this study was to examine whether endovascular coiling can be used to induce different degrees of ischemic injury. The possibility of creating occlusions at different sites in the vasculature to cause retinal ischemia with different degrees of severity was investigated.\n\nMETHODS. The ophthalmic artery was catheterized through the external carotid system using a fluoroscopy-monitored, transfemoral, endovascular approach in 12 pigs (mean weight, 70 kg). The effects were evaluated using angiography and multifocal electroretinography.\n\nRESULTS. Occlusion of arteries supplying the retina was established using endovascular coiling.

Conclusion: The ASFS-based clinical model was demonstrated to be

Conclusion: The ASFS-based clinical model was demonstrated to be a reliable and proven methodology to assess the effectiveness of widely used anti-dandruff treatments. The results are consistent with patient self-assessments, establishing this methodology as relevant to patient

perception of product benefits.”
“This selleckchem paper analyses the effect of early caponisation, at 18 days, on the production performance, lipid metabolism and fatty acid profile of fattening broilers fed an increased amount of fat. Early castration did not influence growth performance and feed intake in the experimental birds. Feed conversion was significantly improved in castrated birds (P<0.05). Triglyceride and total cholesterol values were not significantly influenced (P>0.05) by early castration. Glucose values were significantly higher on the 25th (P<0.05) and 40th (P<0.01) day in sham operated birds in comparison to castrated. Fatty acid composition of the thigh muscle was significantly influenced by castration. The most noticeable difference was in the increased percentage of saturated fatty acids (P<0.05) in castrated birds in comparison to uncastrated. Moreover, the saturation index and the thrombogenic index were higher (P<0.05) in castrated birds and unsaturated/saturated fatty selleck chemicals llc acid ratio was higher

(P<0.05) in uncastrated birds.”
“The proteocephalidean tapeworm Monticellia santafesina n. sp. is described from the siluriform catfish Megalonema platanum (Gunther) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in the Parana River basin, Argentina. The new species is allocated to Monticellia La Rue, 1911 (Proteocephalidae: Monticelliinae) because of the cortical position of the testes, ovary, vitelline follicles and uterus, a globular scolex without a metascolex and uniloculate suckers. The new species differs from all other species of Monticellia (except for M. lenha Woodland, 1933) in possessing a vaginal canal opening anterior or posterior to the cirrus-sac. M. santafesina can be distinguished from M.

lenha by the following characteristics: a larger LDK378 nmr body size; a weakly developed internal longitudinal musculature arranged in 15-35 slim bundles of muscle fibres; vitelline follicles not interrupted at the level of the cirrus-sac and vaginal canal, and with a few paramuscular and/or medullary follicles; the absence of large spinitriches on the anterior margin of the suckers; and the utilisation of Megalonema platanum (in the Parana River basin) as its host, rather than Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz) (in the River Amazon). Monticellia santafesina exhibits low values of prevalence (9%) and intensity of infection (1). Megalonema platanum was parasitised by two proteocephalidean cestodes, Rudolphiella cf. lobosa (Riggenbach, 1895) and the new species described in this paper.