Of those, 21 transcripts remained after removing redundant isofor

Of those, 21 transcripts remained after removing redundant isoforms on the basis of their similarity at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced protein sequences of the 21 transcripts revealed that some transcripts were closely grouped with the three reported UGT proteins ( Fig. 6A). In particular, three transcripts, CP_comp126017, CP_comp142900, and CP_comp82124, showed much higher similarity to the reported UGT proteins than the other transcripts. Overall, the expression patterns of the 21 transcripts were similar between CP and CS, with the exception NVP-BEZ235 chemical structure of CP_comp144124, which showed about two-fold higher expression in CP

(2.5 in CP vs. 1.3 in CS; Fig. 6B). To investigate the transcript expression differences between adventitious roots and primary roots, we compared 35,527 CP reference transcripts with 38,966 transcripts from 11-year-old ginseng primary roots, after assembly of 454 reads from the NCBI SRA database (accession no. SRX017443) [35]. When their sequence similarity was analyzed, 6,057 (17.0%) transcripts in adventitious roots and 6,354 (16.3%) in primary roots were found to be uniquely expressed. A total of 62,082 transcripts, 29,470 (83.0%) from adventitious roots and 32,612 (83.7%)

from primary roots, were commonly expressed. GO analysis of unique transcripts was performed to characterize their functional category. As shown in Fig. 7, more transcripts from adventitious roots were assigned GO terms than from normal roots. Overall, the proportion of Epigenetics inhibitor GO assignment in adventitious root transcriptomes was two-fold higher than

that in normal roots, although the most frequent GO terms such as binding, response to other selleck kinase inhibitor organisms, and nuclear lumen were generally similar between both datasets. In particular, 11 out of 20 GO terms for biological processes had more transcripts in adventitious roots than in normal roots. Terms such as response to metal ion, transcription, multicellular organismal development, and reproductive developmental process showed more than eight-fold higher proportions compared to those in normal roots. By contrast, only two biological process terms, regulation of growth rate and response to stress, accounted for higher proportions in normal roots than in adventitious roots. Transcriptome profiling using NGS technology, the so-called RNA-Seq, is one of the most efficient tools for gene discovery and various functional studies. Illumina transcriptome sequencing and assembly have been used successfully for several nonmodel organisms [36], [37], [38] and [39], but transcriptome assembly has many challenges, including misassembled or chimeric contigs (i.e., assembled contigs containing reads from different transcripts [40]). Here, we describe a method to choose the best assembly result for both biologically and computationally meaningful results.

Furthermore, as discussed previously, the β-Glucosidases, in the

Furthermore, as discussed previously, the β-Glucosidases, in the presence of glucose on a rich medium, as the wine, are able to modulate the response of many compounds, such as, the transference of the glucose molecule to the tyrosol to form salidroside. On the other hand, salidroside may be degraded into tyrosol and glucose ( Ling-Ling, Zhu, Petrovic, & Gonsalves, 2007). More studies will be performed to corroborate this hypothesis, because to our knowledge, the salidroside in wines has not been demonstrated until now. The contents Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library of gallic acid (Fig. 3b) into CHC and CHA samples showed a tendency to increase during the sur lie. This possibility can be related with the enzymes released during yeast autolysis that could be involved

in the hydrolysis of tannins polymers ( Pozo-Bayón et al., 2009). This result is reinforced by the positive correlation observed between the sur lie and gallic acid (CHC: R = 0.659, p = 0.01; CHA: R = 0.603, Docetaxel solubility dmso p = 0.01).The content was similar to the one observed in Cavas and white wines ( Bosch-Fusté et al., 2009 and Esteruelas et al., 2011), and higher than

in Champagnes ( Vauzour et al., 2010). On the contrary, the gallic acid curve at ageing on lees in CTA samples shows a tendency to decrease, although the level has remained in an average range in comparison to the other analysed groups. Since gallic acid is a monomer of the tannins, in the Charmat process the OPC hydrolysis can be hindered due to the fact that surface contact between the wine

and the lees is smaller. Positive correlation between OPC and gallic acid was observed only in this type of SW (CTA: R = 0.484, p = 0.01).The differences observed on the gallic acid curves are linked with the response of the antioxidant capacity assay ( Table 2). Higher levels of caffeic acid (Fig. 3c) were obtained in CHA and CTA samples, indicating a strong influence of the varieties in the concentration of this phenolic compound. Our data is higher than what was observed in Cavas ( Bosch-Fusté et al., 2009), but similar to other white wines ( Esteruelas et al., 2011). The presence of caffeic acid was observed in all samples and the curve during the sur lie was similar and constant for the three analysed groups. This aspect is very important, because the browning increase is due to the formation of brown macromolecules coming from the polymerisation why of phenols; the decrease in the main hydroxycinnamic acids present in SW is also related with these reactions and can affect the overall quality ( Bosch-Fusté et al., 2009). Moreover, the caffeic acid associate with proteins creates an initially soluble molecule, but with the growth, the complex becomes insoluble, generating turbidity into wines ( Esteruelas et al., 2011). Additionally, the degree of insolubility is affected by the nature of the sugars present in the medium and in these samples, negative correlation between caffeic acid and glucose was observed (CHC: R = −0.446, p = 0.05; CHA: R = −0.477, p = 0.

Strawberry fruit (Fragaria

Strawberry fruit (Fragaria GSK2118436 purchase x ananassa Duch.), cv. Camarosa, were harvested from a commercial plantation located in Pelotas (Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil), at five developmental stages based on fruit colour and weight: 1 (green, 3.0 g ± 0.9), 2 (white, 8.6 g ± 0.5), 3 (50% red, 14.2 g ± 0.7), 4 (75% red, 16.6 g ± 1.0) and 5 (red, 16.2 g ± 1.2). From each developmental stage three experimental units of approximately

60 strawberries were collected. Half of an experimental unit was immediately utilised for firmness determination and the remaining was frozen and stored at −80 °C for further analysis. Firmness was measured using a texture analyser (Texture Analyzer, TA.XT plus, Stable Micro Systems Texture Technologies) fitted with a 2 mm (diameter) flat probe.

Each fruit was penetrated 50% at a speed of 1.0 mm s−1 and the maximum force developed during the test was recorded. Three measurements were taken per fruit at different points of the equatorial zone and 30 berries at each stage were assayed. Results were expressed in Newtons (N). Total anthocyanin content was determined according to the method described by Lees and Francis (1972). One gram of strawberry ground to selleck a powder in liquid nitrogen was suspended in 25 ml of acidic ethanol (0.01% HCl), for 1 h in the dark. Absorbance readings were performed in a spectrophotometer at 520 nm. Anthocyanin content was expressed 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase as mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per 100 g of fruit fresh weight (fw). Total phenolic compounds were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteau reagent. One gram of ground flesh

was suspended in 60 ml of deionized water and 5 ml of Folin–Ciocalteau reagent. After eight minutes, the solution was neutralised with 20 ml of a saturated sodium carbonate solution and kept in the dark for 2 h. Absorbance was measured at 725 nm and results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of fruit fw (mg GAE 100 g−1 fw). Ascorbic acid was measured using a reverse-phase HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), according to Vinci, Botre, Mele, and Ruggieri (1995). Total AA was extracted with metaphosphoric acid (1% w/v) and analysed in a Shimadzu HPLC system, using a Shim-Pak CLC-ODS column (3.9 cm × 150 mm × 4 μm), coupled to a UV SPD-10AV detector. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% acetic acid in water (A), and methanol (B). An elution gradient started at 100% A, then linearly reduced to 98% of A and 2% B after five minutes; then held for two minutes and returned to the initial conditions at ten minutes. Flow rate was 0.8 ml min−1 and the detector was set at 254 nm. Quantification was based on an external standard calibration curve using l-(+)-ascorbic acid (Sigma–Aldrich).

, 2013) In Puerto Rican pregnant women, an increasing trend was

, 2013). In Puerto Rican pregnant women, an increasing trend was reported between BPA concentrations and pre-pregnancy BMI (Meeker et al., 2013). Another study conducted in New York City reported that African American women had higher urinary BPA concentrations than Dominican women during pregnancy and reported a positive association between urinary BPA concentrations and urinary phthalate concentrations (Hoepner et al., 2013). Determinants of BPA exposure may vary across populations (Braun et al., 2011, Calafat et al., 2008, Casas

et al., 2013, He et al., 2009, Hoepner et al., 2013 and Meeker et al., 2013) and identification of modifiable exposure factors may help to minimize exposures during critical windows of development. Additionally, although BPA concentrations are reported to be lower in Mexican–Americans (Calafat et al., 2008), it is not known what factors contribute to exposures within check details this population, particularly among pregnant women, and whether BPA exposure changes with acculturation. BPA exposure data on minority populations in the U.S. is also

limited. In the present study, we evaluated variability and identified predictors of urinary BPA concentrations measured at two time points during pregnancy in a sample of predominantly low-income Mexican/Mexican–American women living in California. We also explored the role of residence time in the United States on significant this website dietary predictors of BPA exposure. Participants were pregnant women participating in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS), a longitudinal birth cohort study of environmental exposures and children’s health. Participating families are predominantly low-income, Mexican–Americans or Mexican immigrants, and live in the Salinas Valley, California, an agricultural region. Pregnant women who were > 18 years

old, < 20 week gestation, Spanish- or English-speaking, eligible to receive government health insurance, receiving prenatal care from local community clinics, and planning to deliver at the county hospital were recruited in 1999 and 2000 (Eskenazi et al., 2003). In total, 601 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. All protocols Docetaxel manufacturer were reviewed and approved by the Committee for Protection of Human Subjects at the University of California, Berkeley and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and a written informed consent was obtained from participants prior to data and sample collection. Women were interviewed and provided urine samples during two prenatal visits. The first prenatal visit took place at approximately (mean + SD) 14.0 + 5.1 week gestation (range: 5 to 28 week gestation), while the second prenatal visit took place at approximately 26.4 + 2.4 week gestation (range: 18 to 39 week gestation). The present analysis includes all women of Mexican descent who provided at least one prenatal sample of sufficient volume for analysis for BPA and specific gravity.

Plots in Arnoldstein are located at an elevation of 550–650 m, on

Plots in Arnoldstein are located at an elevation of 550–650 m, on flat terrain. Arnoldstein has a temperate climate. Mean annual temperature at the nearest meteorological station is 8.2 °C, with a mean monthly temperature of −3.2 °C in January and +18.7 °C in July. Mean annual precipitation

is 1075 mm, of which 564 mm falls from May–September. Plots are located at three different soil types: Fluvisols, heavy textured cambisols derived from moraine material, and leptosols. Each soil type encompasses a variety of age-classes and densities. According to the yield tables of Marschall (1992) mean annual increment at the age of 100 years range from 5 to 17 m3 ha−1 year−1 for Norway spruce and Selleck AZD8055 from 5 to 9 m3 ha−1 year−1 for Scots pine. Plots in Litschau are located at an elevation of 400–600 m. The climate is colder than in Arnoldstein. The mean annual temperature is 7.1 °C. January Sirolimus clinical trial mean is again −3.2 °C but the mean temperature in July is only +16.2 °C. Mean annual precipitation is 707 mm, of which 416 mm falls from May–September. Soils are podzols, gleyic podzols, and mollic and umbric gleysols. According to the yield tables of Marschall (1992) mean annual increment at the age of 100 years range from 5 to

15 m3 ha−1 year−1 for Norway spruce and from 5 to 9 m3 ha−1 year−1 for Scots pine. At plot establishment, all trees above a diameter at breast height (dbh) of 5 cm (Litschau) or 10 cm (Arnoldstein) were individually numbered and tree locations were recorded for each tree. For each tree, dbh, height, and height to the crown base were recorded at the first assessment. Dbh and heights were remeasured after 5 years. Height to the crown base

was remeasured at longer intervals. Stand characteristics of the research plots at the beginning of the simulation runs are given in Table 5. The stands are pure and mixed stands of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Stand age was 10–111 years at the first assessment. learn more Dominant heights ranged from 6.5 to 30 m. A wide range of stand densities was found. The stand density index (Reineke, 1933) ranged from 428 to 1320. To examine trends of age and density, we fit models of the form: equation(1) hd=a0+b0⋅ln(A)+b1⋅SDI equation(2) hd=a0+b0⋅ln(A)+b1⋅BAwhere h/d: height:diameter ratio (m m−1); ln(A): natural logarithm of age (year); SDI: stand density index; BA: basal area (m2 ha−1); a0, b0, b1: estimated parameters. The variation in stand density is considerably higher in Arnoldstein than in Litschau (Table 5). Furthermore, the data in Arnoldstein are free of any trend of density with age. In addition, there is a sufficient variety of densities for all age classes in Arnoldstein. In Litschau, there is a nearly significant trend of density with age (p = 0.0756, R2 = 0.14) and there is little variation within a given age class. This is probably an artifact of a smaller sample size (n = 23 plots). The analysis was restricted to Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

, 2007) The seed production of many agroforestry trees is often

, 2007). The seed production of many agroforestry trees is often informal and very few countries have included these species in their tree improvement programmes. Germplasm of exotic tree species, typically from introductions of unknown provenance and uncharacterised performance, is often collected by smallholders directly for their Ipatasertib nmr own planting.

Lillesø et al. (2011), for example, identified five sources for farmers’ tree planting material (farmland, natural forest, plantations, seed orchards and vegetative propagules) and indicated heavy reliance on the first source, with natural forest sources being underutilised. Farmers and local seed dealers often prefer to collect seed from previously Epigenetics Compound Library introduced exotic trees in farmland rather than source externally because the transaction costs are lower, even when better-performing seed sources of the same trees may be available elsewhere (Lengkeek et al., 2005 and Muriuki, 2005). In recent decades, there has been a greater focus on the cultivation of indigenous tree species in agroforestry systems, with the involvement of local people in carrying out genetic selection for tree characteristics of importance

to them. One such approach, known as participatory domestication, has been developed in Africa on indigenous fruit trees (see Dawson et al., 2014, this special issue). The advantage of this approach is that genetic quality as a concept is explicitly considered, and local wild stands provide significant genetic variation that is a pool for selection

(Tchoundjeu et al., 2006). The risk of spreading pests and diseases while transferring reproductive material is often considerable. Pests and diseases travel in different substrates and it is challenging Oxymatrine to monitor the way they spread; for example, to reconstruct the exact pathways of their past movements. In Europe, Santini et al. (2013) reconstructed the most probable pathways of alien invasive forest pathogen spread since 1800. They found that living plants (57% of all pathogen introductions) and wood (10%) were likely major vectors for introductions, while the share of any other pathway, such as bark, seed, soil and cuttings, was less than 10% over the last two centuries. According to the same authors, over the last few decades, the invasion rate of alien forest pathogens has increased exponentially in Europe, with soil recently becoming a major transfer substrate second to living plants. In the USA, a similar study attributed 69% of the introductions of non-native forest insects and pathogens since 1860 to the trade in living plants (Liebhold et al., 2012). These studies confirm the need for phytosanitary regulations and their careful implementation while transferring tree germplasm. However, they also show that the pathogen risk associated with transferring seed is considerably lower than the risk connected with transferring other materials such as living plants or wood.

3 allele The only other example of an apparent

true disc

3 allele. The only other example of an apparent

true discordance due to an allele dropout occurred in sample 13-011549R-02-1. This was a single source sample and was called as a 16 homozygote in Ferroptosis inhibitor drugs D10S1248 by the Investigator® ESSplex Plus Kit and a 14, 16 heterozygote by both PowerPlex® ESX Fast Systems. Genotypes were obtained from 1392 samples for the PowerPlex® ESI 17 Fast System and 1387 samples for the PowerPlex® ESX 17 Fast System. There was no discordance between the fast cycling and standard cycling chemistries. Thus, the genotype and allele frequencies recently reported for loci present in the PowerPlex® ESI Fast and ESX Fast Systems may be used click here with these systems [28]. Stutter percentages were calculated from the 656 unrelated individuals used in the concordance study. Percentage stutter was determined for products that were

both one repeat unit smaller (N − 4/N − 3) and larger (N + 4/N + 3) in length than the true allele at all autosomal loci and for products that are two bases (N − 2) smaller than the true allele at D1S1656 and SE33. The plus one repeat unit stutter is low for all tetranucleotide repeats, but higher for the trinucleotide repeat D22S1045. The mean, standard deviation of the mean (SD), and maximum stutter observed Cobimetinib manufacturer across all alleles at each locus in both multiplex configurations are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. The mean plus three SD values in each table are used as the recommended stutter filter in the GeneMapper®ID panel file and the GeneMapper®ID-X stutter file. The PowerPlex® ESI Fast and ESX Fast Systems allow for rapid amplification on a variety of thermal cyclers from both purified DNA and direct amplification samples using the

same autosomal primer pairs incorporated in the original standard cycling systems [4], [5] and [6]. By using the same autosomal primer pairs (and only minor changes to the 5′ end of the amelogenin primers), concordance and species specificity was maintained under the faster cycling conditions. Despite a 4-fold reduction in cycling time there is no significant reduction in performance in the presence of PCR inhibitors, overall sensitivity, ability to detect minor contributors in two person mixtures or in stutter when compared to the original standard cycling systems [4], [5], [6] and [28]. The ability to perform direct amplification on a variety of single source reference sample types is conferred by the incorporation of AmpSolution™ Reagent into the reaction with concordant genotypes obtained across diverse direct amplification sample types, both within and between labs.

1C) In the absence of compound (Fig 1C-①) or in presence of an

1C). In the absence of compound (Fig. 1C-①) or in presence of an inactive compound (Fig. 1C-②) infection with gt2a HCVcc induced RFP-NLS-IPS reporter cells to have red signal Neratinib supplier in the nuclei while the

GFP replicon displays a green signal in the cytoplasm. Cross-genotypic inhibitors prevent both gt1 and gt2 HCV RNA replication, therefore the green signal from gt1 replicon would disappear and the red signal can be detected in the cytoplasm exclusively (Fig. 1C-③); whereas a gt1 specific inhibitor would lead to a decreased GFP expression in replicon cells and nuclear RFP localization in RFP-NLS-IPS reporter cells (Fig. 1C-④). Lack of RFP translocation but maintenance of GFP signal would either mean a gt2 specific inhibitor of replication (Fig. 1C-⑤) or a block at the viral entry level (Fig. 1C-⑥), which can be tested in a secondary assay by infection with a HCV gt 1a/2a chimera. If, later steps in the viral

life cycle are targeted preventing the release of infectious particles, primarily infected RFP-NLS-IPS cells would initially be infected and the translocation of RFP into the nucleus can be observed (Fig. 1C-⑦). Production of progeny DNA Synthesis inhibitor virus and spread will, however, be inhibited resulting in a mixed pattern within the RFP-NLS-IPS cells with two translocation positive cells in close proximity (‘couple phenotype’) which is the result of primarily infection and cell division during the 72 h assay period (Fig. 1B). To analyze the data, in-house image analysis algorithms were developed for the detection and quantification of certain cellular phenotypes (Fig. 2).

Images from five fields per well were taken in three different channels. The algorithm identifies nuclei Vildagliptin stained with Hoechst (blue channel) and determines the total number of cells, which along with nuclear size and intensity were used as indicators of compound induced cytotoxicity (Fig 2B). In the green channel, GFP fluorescence intensity, which is proportional to HCV gt1b RNA replication, is measured and expressed as percentage of GFP positive cells. In the red channel, the software determines the number of RFP-NLS-IPS expressing cells by RFP fluorescence intensity in either the nucleus or cytoplasm, and calculates the percentage of RFP translocation positive cells as a marker of HCVcc gt2 infection (Fig. 2). The assay was validated by 10-points dose response curve (DRC) analysis using NM-107 (2′-C-methylcytidine) (Bassit et al., 2008), a nucleoside NS5B inhibitor with cross-genotypic activity, and A-837093 (Lu et al., 2007), a non-nucleoside NS5B inhibitor specific for gt1 (Fig. 3). As expected, increasing concentrations of NM-107, decreased both NS5A-GFP expression in the cytoplasm (gt1b replicon) as well as RFP-NLS translocation into the nuclei (gt2a HCVcc infection) (Fig. 3A). This can be quantified by image processing as described in Fig. 2.

By quickly

establishing a historical record of sediment l

By quickly

establishing a historical record of sediment load variability from dam pool sediment, the impact of past and present watershed practices on sediment load can be assessed to determine if management practices are working as intended. In addition, the dam pool sediment load record can be used to project future trends in sediment load within a stream system. When a dam is removed the associated dam pool sediment trap is gone and a stream’s sediment load is allowed to continue downstream. The Gorge Dam is being considered for removal in order to improve the overall health of the Cuyahoga River and if removed will only increase the Lower Cuyahoga River sediment load by about 8%. We thank Dustin Bates and Steven Reutter for their assistance during coring and Tom Quick for his help in the laboratory. Kelvin Rogers, Bill Zawiski and Linda Whitman provided helpful background information. selleck Friends of the Crooked River are gratefully acknowledged for funding the 210Pb dating. Jack Cornett of MyCore Scientific provided discussions concerning the age model to accompany his radiometric dating Ribociclib purchase measurements. Metro Parks, Serving Summit County allowed us access to the dam pool. Ohio Department of Natural Resources and local partners provided funding for developing the Watershed Action Plan. We thank two anonymous reviewers and guess editor Karl Wegmann for comments that improved this manuscript. In

addition we thank Anne Chin, Anne Jefferson and Karl Wegmann for organizing this special issue. “
“Sedimentation in reservoirs, retention ponds, and other engineered catch basins can accelerate Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase due to urbanization, agriculture, and other human-induced land-use changes (Palmieri et al., 2001, Wang and Hu, 2009 and Basson, 2010). Large reservoirs around the world are losing around one percent of their storage capacity every year (WCD, 2000) with annual replacement costs

of storage lost to sediment accumulation in American reservoirs approximating one billion dollars by the late 1980s (Crowder, 1987). Despite the ongoing financial burden of maintaining reservoirs for their intended use, reservoir-sedimentation rates are useful in providing information on basin-sediment yields (Verstraeten et al., 2003 and de Vente et al., 2005) and how they are affected by landscape disturbances (Harden, 1993, Walling, 1999 and Mattheus et al., 2009). The spatio-temporal relationships between watershed disturbances and sediment yields, however, are not straightforward and require basin-wide information on rates of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition. Additionally, controlling factors such as climate and anthropogenic variables change over time and are difficult to constrain across large areas, making soil-erosion and sediment-yield prediction more difficult on the large end of the drainage-basin size spectrum (de Vente and Poesen, 2005).

For instance, some 20,000 years

For instance, some 20,000 years this website ago people are thought to have introduced a few small mammals to

islands in the Bismarck Archipelago (White, 2004). Island agriculturalists often brought ‘transported landscapes’ along with them, including a suite of domesticated plants and animals that make human colonization signatures on many islands easy to identify (see Kirch, 2000, McGovern et al., 2007 and Zeder, 2008). In the sections that follow, we explore these issues, relying on extensive archeological and ecological research in Polynesia, the Caribbean, and California’s Channel Islands. A key component of our discussion is the importance of how island physical characteristics (size, age, isolation, etc.), in tandem with human decision making, shape ancient environmental developments on islands (Table 1). The Polynesian islands include 10 principal archipelagoes (Tonga, Samoa, Society, Cook, Austral, Tuamotu, Gambier (Mangareva), Marquesas, Hawai’i, and New Zealand) and many other isolated islands within a vast triangle defined by apices at New Zealand, Hawai’i, and Easter Island. Eighteen smaller islands within

Melanesia and Micronesia, known as Polynesian Outliers, are also occupied by Polynesian-speaking peoples. Archeological, linguistic, and human biological research has confirmed that the Polynesian cultures, languages, Lumacaftor datasheet and peoples form a monophyletic group within the larger family of Austronesian cultures, languages, and peoples (Kirch and Green, 2001). The immediate homeland of the Polynesians was situated in the adjacent archipelagoes of Tonga and Samoa (along Phospholipase D1 with more isolated Futuna and ‘Uvea), which were settled by Eastern Lapita colonists ca. 880–896 B.C. (2830–2846 B.P.; Burley et al., 2012). Ancestral Polynesian

culture and Proto-Polynesian language emerged in this region by the end of the first millennium B.C. (Kirch and Green, 2001). A significant diaspora of Polynesian peoples beginning late in the first millennium A.D. then led to the discovery and colonization of the remainder of the Polynesian triangle and Outliers. The last archipelago to be settled was New Zealand, around A.D. 1280 (Kirch, 2000 and Wilmshurst et al., 2008). The Polynesian islands all lie within Remote Oceania, which had no human occupants prior to the dispersal of Austronesians who possessed outrigger sailing canoe technology, a horticultural subsistence economy, and sophisticated knowledge of fishing and marine exploitation (Kirch, 2000). Ranging in size from diminutive Anuta (0.8 km2) to sub-continental New Zealand (268,680 km2), the Polynesian islands span tropical, subtropical, and temperate climatic zones. They also vary in geological age and complexity, and in their terrestrial and marine ecosystems.