The samples were labelled as belonging to one of three models of

The samples were labelled as belonging to one of three models of lung inflammation: bacterial infection, lung injury and fibrosis, or Th2 response (allergic airway inflammation). Probes with common GENBANK

accessions were collapsed to a single measurement for each sample using the mean. Using the common accession numbers, a prediction model using shrunken centroids was estimated. Cross-validation of the nearest shrunken centroid classifier Roxadustat order was conducted to identify an appropriate threshold. PAMR implements 10-fold cross-validation. This involves dividing the samples into ten approximately equal-size parts ensuring that the classes are distributed proportionally. Ten-fold cross-validation works by fitting a model on 90% of the samples and then predicting the class labels of the remaining 10%. This procedure is repeated ten times, with each part playing the role of the test samples and the errors on all ten parts added together to compute the overall error. A threshold of 2 was selected, yielding a classifier with 753 GENBANK accessions. The means of the nine CBNP treatment conditions were then classified using the estimated prediction model. Functional analysis was conducted to establish molecular perturbations that were in common or discrepant between CBNP exposed mice and inflammatory

lung disease models. The analysis was conducted on genes that were common between CBNP and each lung disease model, then again Bupivacaine for genes that were unique to CBNP, using a cut-off of FDR-adjusted p < 0.1 and a fold-change > 1.5 for all datasets. The less STA-9090 cell line stringent cut-off was employed for disease models because of the low power in several of the datasets. DAVID Bioinformatics

Resources 6.7 was used to identify enriched biological functions from terms with similar genes and biological meaning ( Huang et al., 2009a and Huang et al., 2009b). DAVID Biological functions with enrichment scores > 1.3 were considered significant, in accordance with DAVID recommendations ( Huang et al., 2009a). Clusters with enrichment scores > 1.3 in our analysis contained at least one gene ontology term or pathway for which the Benjamini-corrected p-value was ≤0.05. In order to predict potential disease outcomes of relevance to humans, gene expression profiles were mined against genomic data repositories. Disease prediction analysis was done in NextBio ( using the high dose exposure profiles as differentially expressed genes were identified at all time-points for this dose. Data from CBNP exposed mice were compared to curated datasets to identify disease studies with similar gene profiles, gene ranking and consistency. Pairwise gene signature correlations and rank-based enrichment statistics were employed in the calculation of NextBio scores for each disease.

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