Two parental maps were constructed using a population of 240 clon

Two parental maps were constructed using a population of 240 clones. Strong correlations were observed between

starch and dry-matter content (r > 0.8, P < 0.0001) in the storage roots, while moderate correlations (r = -0.6, P < 0.0001) were observed for beta-carotene and starch content. In both parental maps, QTL analysis revealed the presence of 13 QTL for storage root dry-matter content, 12 QTL for starch content, and 8 QTL for beta-carotene content. Multiple QTL regression selleck chemicals models developed for segregation of alleles in each parent explained 15-24% of the variation in dry-matter content, 17-30% of the starch content, and 17-35% of beta-carotene content. To the best of our knowledge, this research presents the only QTL mapping study published to date for dry-matter, starch, and beta-carotene content in sweetpotato. This work improves our understanding of the inheritance of these important traits in

sweetpotato, and represents a first step toward the long-term goal of developing marker-assisted breeding tools to facilitate sweetpotato breeding efforts.”
“The present study was designed to investigate the protective efficacy SB203580 of eugenol against skin cancer and probe into the mechanistic aspects. Skin tumors were initiated by applying 160 nmol DMBA and promoted by twice weekly applications of 8.5 nmol

TPA for 28 wk. All mice developed tumors by 13 wk of promotion. However, in mice pretreated with 30 mu L eugenol, no tumors were detected until 8 wk (following anti-initiation protocol) and until 14 wk (following antipromotion protocol) of tumor promotion. PCNA and TUNEL immunohistochemistry of tumors revealed eugenol to ameliorate cell proliferation and elevate apoptosis respectively. The effect of eugenol was assessed on specific stages of carcinogenesis. Initiation with DMBA led to a significant upregulation of p53 expression with a concomitant increase in p21(WAF1) levels in epidermal cells indicating induction of damage to the DNA. However, pretreatment with eugenol led to overexpression of these genes, which probably Metabolism inhibitor helped stimulate apoptosis of the initiated cells. To ascertain the molecular mechanisms implicated in the antitumor promoting activity of eugenol, its effect was investigated on markers of tumor promotion and inflammation: ODC activity and NOS and COX-2 expression, and on levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-alpha, and PGE(2)). Eugenol markedly inhibited all. Eugenol also inhibited the upstream signaling molecule: NF-kappa B, which regulates the expression of these genes. TPA-induced depletion of cutaneous GSH and antioxidant enzymes armory was also precluded by eugenol.

The simulation results have not only explained flow phenomena obs

The simulation results have not only explained flow phenomena observed in experiments but also predict new flow phenomena, providing guidelines for new chip design and optimization, and a better understanding of the cell micro-environment and fundamentals of microfluidic flows in single-cell manipulation and analysis. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Background: We investigated whether spa typing is useful for indicating the setting of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition (community or health care acquired), the clinical relevance (colonization or infection),

the type of infection (invasive or noninvasive), and the clinical outcome.\n\nMethods: Between August 2006 and December 2009, 381 routinely diagnosed culture-confirmed MRSA-positive patients were included SBC-115076 into a cross-sectional study at an CBL0137 cell line 800-bed hospital.\n\nResults: Out of 159 patients with colonization, 27 (17%) acquired MRSA in the community (CA-MRSA) and 123 (77.4%) in health care settings (HA-MRSA), and, of the 222 patients with infections, 119 (53.6%) had HA-MRSA and 103 (46.4%) had CA-MRSA. The 10 most frequent spa types accounted for 68.2% of the 346 typed MRSA isolates: t190 (28.3%), t032 (16.5%), t041 (9.4%), t008 (8.4%), t001 (3.4%), t002 (2.9%), t044 (3.1%), t223 (2.1%), t015 (2.1%), t127

(1.3%).\n\nConclusion: Spa typing of routinely identified MRSA isolates is unsuitable to predict the likeliness of an infection, of an invasive infection, and the clinical outcome. Molecular criteria such as spa type or Panton-Valentine leukocidin positivity GDC-0973 clinical trial used for classifying MRSA as either belonging to a community or hospital clone are of limited value to indicate the setting, where the MRSA strain was actually acquired according to epidemiologic criteria. Copyright (C) 2013 by the Association for Professionals in

Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of yoga practice on clinical and psychological outcomes in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).\n\nMethods: In a 40-day yoga camp at the Institute of Yoga and Consciousness, ambulatory subjects with T2DM not having significant complications (n = 35) participated in a 40-day yoga camp, where yogic practices were overseen by trained yoga teachers. Clinical, biochemical, and psychological well-being were studied at baseline and at the end of the camp\n\nResults: At the end of the study, there was a reduction of body mass index (BMI) (26.514 +/- 3.355 to 25.771 +/- 3.40; P < 0.001) and anxiety (6.20 +/- 3.72 to 4.29 +/- 4.46; P < 0.05) and an improvement in total general well-being (48.6 +/- 11.13 to 52.66 +/- 52.66 +/- 12.87; P < 0.05).

ResultsWe evaluated the performance of our system by conducting a

ResultsWe evaluated the performance of our system by conducting an identification experiment with three different skin images with five subjects. The participants had to identify one of the three skin surfaces by using a haptic device (Falcon) only. No visual cue was provided

for the experiment. The results indicate that our system provides sufficient performance to render discernable tactile rendering with different skin surfaces. ConclusionOur system uses only a single skin image and automatically generates a 3D haptic surface based on human haptic perception. Realistic skin interactions can be provided in real-time for the purpose of skin diagnosis, simulations, or training. Our system can also be used for other applications like virtual reality and cosmetic applications.”
“Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have become the focus of cellular therapeutics but little is known regarding bone marrow (BM) MSC derived from children. As MSC constitute part DMH1 clinical trial of BM stroma, we examined their properties in children with hematologic diseases.\n\nMethods Fedratinib mouse BM MSC from children with non-malignant hematologic

disorders and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were isolated and expanded. MSC were immunophenotypically characterized and their functional characteristics were assessed by CFU-F assay and cell doubling time calculation. Their ability for trilineage differentiation was verified by molecular and histochemical methods. Apoptosis was evaluated and clonal analysis was performed.\n\nResults MSC were isolated from BM of all groups. They acquired the mesenchymal-related markers from the first passage, with a simultaneous decrease of hematopoietic markers. A very low percentage of apoptotic cells was detected in all passages. The proliferative and clonogenic capacity did not differ among groups, with

the exception of ALL at diagnosis, in which they were defective. Histochemical and molecular analysis of differentiated MSC yielded characteristics for adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Clonal analysis in a number of BM samples revealed a highly heterogeneous population of cells within each clone.\n\nDiscussion MSC from BM of children with hematologic disorders, with the exception of ALL at diagnosis, can be isolated in sufficient number and quality to serve as a potential source Autophagy Compound Library in vivo for clinical applications.”
“The aim of this study was to validate the overall preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)-PCR procedure and to determine the diagnostic value. Genotyped embryos not selected for embryo transfer ( ET) and unsuitable for cryopreservation after PGD were used for confirmatory analysis. The PGD genotyped blastomeres and corresponding embryos were compared, and morphology was scored on Day 4 post fertilization. To establish the validity of the PGD-PCR procedure and the diagnostic value, misdiagnosis rate, false-negative rate and negative predictive value were calculated.

The study was conducted in 145 locations in the Baden region of s

The study was conducted in 145 locations in the Baden region of southwest Germany.

The planthopper was surveyed on host plant patches, consisting of stinging nettle and/or bindweeds. We used a stratified modelling framework where (1) species presence-absence data were related to an extensive environmental dataset using logistic regressions; and (2) different types of average models were developed based on an information theoretic method. The results show that the incidence of H. obsoletus is associated to above-as well as below-ground environmental factors, particularly to the amount of fine soil and average annual precipitation. This result was consistent across all average models. The relative importance CUDC-907 in vitro of other environmental variables was dependent upon the average model under consideration and thus may vary according to their intended use, either the explanation of habitat requirements or the prediction and mapping of occurrence risks. The study showed that SDMs offer a quantification of species’ habitat requirements and thus, could represent a valuable tool for pest management purposes. By providing examples of current issues of grapevine pests in viticulture, we discuss the use of SDMs in agricultural risk analysis and highlight their advantages and caveats.”
“A trial was conducted to test the effect of fine grinding (micronization) of soya bean meal (SBM) and full-fat

soya bean (FFSB) on coefficient of ileal apparent digestibility (CIAD) and

coefficient of ileal true digestibility (CITD) of amino acids in 23-day-old broilers. A completely randomized block design with four treatments arranged factorially (SBM selleck inhibitor and FFSB; micronized and ground) and six replicates (eight Selleckchem 3 MA broilers per treatment) was used. Mean particle size (MPS) was 47 and 41 mu m for micronized SBM and FFSB and 881 and 778 mu m for ground SBM and FFSB, respectively. The four diets were based on maize starch and sucrose with the soya product tested as the sole source of dietary crude protein (CP, 200 g/kg). In addition. a nitrogen-free diet was formulated to estimate the basal ileal endogenous losses of the amino acids. Broilers were fed a commercial pelleted maize-SBM diet from 1 to 19 days of age and, then, their respective experimental diets in mash form from 20 to 23 days of age. Broilers fed SBM had higher CIAD of organic matter, CR arginine, leucine, methionine and valine (P<0.05) and tended to have higher CIAD of threonine (P<0.10) than broilers fed FFSB. In addition, broilers fed SBM had higher CITD of CP (P<0.05), leucine, methionine and valine (P<0.01) than broilers fed FFSB. Particle size did not affect the ileal digestibility of CP or of any of the essential amino acids. It is concluded that broilers fed soya bean meal had higher ileal digestibility of amino acids than broilers fed full-fat soya bean and that fine grinding of the soya products did not affect amino acid digestibility.

In slower firing neurons, BK currents dominated repolarization at

In slower firing neurons, BK currents dominated repolarization at the highest firing rates and sodium channel availability find more was protected by a resurgent blocking mechanism. Quantitative differences in Kv3 current density across neurons and qualitative differences in immunohistochemically detected expression of Kv3 subunits could account for the difference in firing range within and across cell classes. These results demonstrate how divergent firing properties of two neuronal populations arise through the interplay of at least three ionic currents.”
“We report a facile intracellular manipulation of fluorescent magnetic Fe3O4-CdSe nanoparticles

using magnetic force. The growth of CdSe quantum dots on Fe3O4 nanoparticles produces Fe3O4-CdSe nanoparticles with two distinct properties, fluorescence and superparamagnetism. After nonspecific surface modification using glutathione (GSH), the hydrophilic Fe3O4-CdSe@GSH nanoparticles can be easily uptaken by an HEK293T cell line. Conlocal images indicate that the

uptaken nanoparticles can be manipulated using a small magnet. The successful intracellular manipulation of magnetic nanoparticles may offer a new strategy for studying polarized cells.”
“Objective Selleckchem FK228 To investigate the diagnostic value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging with background signal suppression (DWIBS) for preoperative assessment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in comparison to F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18)FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT).\n\nMethods Thirty-three patients with suspected NSCLC were enrolled. Patients were examined before surgery with PET/CT and whole-body MRI including T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE), T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and DWIBS sequences (b = 0/800). Histological or cytological specimens were taken as standard of reference.\n\nResults

Whole-body MRI with DWIBS as well as PET/CT provided diagnostic image AZD5153 molecular weight quality in all cases. Sensitivity for primary tumour detection: MRI 93%, PET/CT 98%. T-staging accuracy: MRI 63%, PET/CT 56%. N-staging accuracy: MRI 66%, PET/CT 71%. UICC staging accuracy: MRI 66%, PET/CT 74%. Sensitivity for metastatic involvement of individual lymph node groups: MRI 44%, PET/CT 47%. Specificity for individual non-metastatic lymph node groups: MRI 93%, PET/CT 96%. Assessment accuracy for individual lymph node groups: MRI 85%, PET/CT 88%. Observer agreement rate for UICC staging: MRI 74%, PET/CT 90%.\n\nConclusion Whole-body MRI with DWIBS provides comparable results to PET/CT in staging of NSCLC, but shows no superiority. Most relevant challenges for both techniques are T-staging accuracy and sensitivity for metastatic lymph node involvement.”
“The impact of entropic effects on the classical salt resolution of a 2-arylpyrrolidine is described.

“Companies developing and commercializing Healthcare IT ap

“Companies developing and commercializing Healthcare IT applications may decide to involve the users in the software development lifecycle in order to better understand the users’ needs and to optimize their products. Unfortunately direct developers-users dialogues are not sufficient to ensure a proper understanding of the users’ needs. It is

also necessary to involve human factors specialists to analyze the users’ expression of their needs and to properly formalize the requirements for design purposes. The objective of this paper is to present a case study reporting the collaborative work between HF experts and a company developing and commercializing a CPOE. This study shows how this collaboration BEZ235 helps resolve the limits of direct users involvement and usual problems pertaining to users’ needs description and understanding.\n\nMethod: The company participating in the study has implemented a procedure to convene regular meetings allowing direct exchanges between the development team and users’

representatives. Those meetings aim at getting users’ feedbacks on the existing products and at validating further developments. In parallel with usual HF methods supporting the analysis of the work system (onsite observations followed by debriefing interviews) and the usability evaluation of the application (usability inspection and usability tests), HF experts took the opportunity of the meetings organized by the company to collect, re-interpret and re-formulate the needs

expressed by the users.\n\nResults: this website The developers perceive the physicians’ requirements concerning the display of the patient’s list of medication as contradictory. In a previous meeting round the users had required a detailed view of the medication list against the synthesized existing one. Once this requirement satisfied, the users participating in the current meeting round require a synthesized view against the existing detailed one. The development team is unable to understand what they perceive as a reverse claim. Relying on a cognitive analysis of the physicians’ decision making concerning the patient’s treatment, selleck chemical the HF experts help re-formulate the physicians’ cognitive needs in terms of synthesized/detailed display of the medication list depending on the stage of the decision making process. This led to an astute re-engineering of the application allowing the physicians to easily navigate back and forth between the synthesized and detailed views depending on the progress of their decision making.\n\nConclusion: This study demonstrates that the integration of users’ representatives in the software lifecycle is a good point for the end users. But it remains insufficient to resolve the complex usability problems of the system. Such solutions require the integration of HF expertise.

All rights reserved “
“Objective: The objective of the prese

All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the outcomes of lung transplantation in patients aged 70 years or older have changed after implementation of the lung allocation score in May 2005.\n\nMethods: Patients aged 70 years or older undergoing primary lung transplantation from 1995 to 2009 were identified from the United Network for Organ Sharing registry. The primary stratification was the pre-lung allocation score era versus lung allocation score era. Risk-adjusted multivariate Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were

conducted to evaluate the effect Navitoclax of age 70 years or older on 1-year post-transplant mortality compared with a reference cohort of patients aged 60 to 69 years.\n\nResults: Of the overall 15,726 adult lung transplantation patients in the study period, 225 (1.4%) were 70 years old or

older and 4634 (29.5%) were 60 to 69 years old. The patients aged 70 years or older were a larger cohort of overall lung transplantation patients in the lung allocation score era compared with before the lung allocation score era (3.1% vs 0.3%, P<.001). In the risk-adjusted Cox analysis, age 70 years selleck inhibitor or older was a significant risk factor for 1-year post-lung transplantation mortality in the pre-lung allocation score era (hazard ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.62, P=.02) but not in the lung allocation score era (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.46; P=.92). Similarly,

Kaplan-Meier 1-year survival was significantly reduced in patients 70 years old or older versus 60 to 69 years old in the pre-lung allocation score era (56.7% vs 76.3%, P=.006) but not in the lung allocation score era (79.0% vs 80.0%, P=.72).\n\nConclusions: Recipients aged 70 years or older were a larger proportion of overall lung transplantation patients after implementation of the lung allocation score. Although associated with significantly increased post-lung transplantation mortality in the pre-lung allocation score era, age 70 years or older is currently associated with outcomes comparable to those of patients buy INCB028050 aged 60 to 69 years. Therefore, age 70 years or older should not serve as an absolute contraindication to lung transplantation in the lung allocation score era. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;144:1133-8)”
“In a retrospective study of archival diarrheal stool samples collected from 1974 to 1991 at Children’s Hospital National Medical Center, Washington, DC, we detected three genotype G9P[8] viruses in specimens collected in 1980, which represented the earliest human G9 viruses ever isolated. The VP7 genes of two culture-adapted 1980 G9 viruses were phylogenetically related closely to the lineage 2 G9 virus VP7 gene. Unexpectedly, however, the VP7s of the 1980 G9 viruses were more closely related serotypically to lineage 3 VP7s than to lineage 2 VP7, which may be supported by amino acid sequence analyses of the VP7 proteins.

“Trichoderma species

belong to a class of free-liv

“Trichoderma species

belong to a class of free-living fungi beneficial to plants that are common in the rhizosphere. We investigated the role of auxin in regulating the growth and development of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings in response to inoculation with Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma atroviride by developing a plant-fungus interaction system. Wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings inoculated with either T. virens or T. atroviride showed characteristic auxin-related phenotypes, including increased biomass production and stimulated lateral root development. Mutations in genes involved Entinostat clinical trial in auxin transport or signaling, AUX1, BIG, EIR1, and AXR1, were found to reduce the growth-promoting and root developmental effects of T. virens inoculation. When grown under axenic conditions, T. virens produced the auxin-related compounds indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-acetaldehyde, and indole-3-ethanol. A comparative analysis of all three indolic compounds provided detailed information about the structure-activity relationship based on their efficacy at modulating root system architecture, activation of auxin-regulated gene expression, and rescue of the root hair-defective

phenotype of the rhd6 auxin response Arabidopsis mutant. Our results highlight the important role of auxin signaling for plant growth promotion by T. virens.”
“Le BMN-673 Fort I osteotomy is a routine procedure for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Following selleck chemicals advances in instrumentation and anaesthesia, it is usually carried out safely as an elective procedure in hospitals with no adverse complications. Life-threatening complications are rare although the operation is performed in an area with an extensive vascular supply. The authors report a case of Le Fort I osteotomy that resulted in an unusual

complication of cerebrospinal fluid leak.”
“A new multi-SVD based subspace estimation algorithm is proposed to improve the direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA) estimation accuracy for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. First, the matched filter output is transformed to a 3-order tensor. Then the signal subspace is estimated by multi-SVD of the matrix unfoldings of this tensor or its covariance tensor. Since the multidimensional structure is utilized, the estimated signal subspace of our method has better accuracy than that of the traditional SVD/EVD method. Combined with the classical subspace based methods, such as MUSIC and ESPRIT, the proposed approach improves the angle estimation performance compared with the existing ones. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of our method. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“With excellent characteristics of bio-adsorption, cell adhesiveness, virus-free, little immunogenic reaction, etc.

A history of abnormal pre-vaccination PAP smear result (present i

A history of abnormal pre-vaccination PAP smear result (present in 78 % of women in the study group) and age of over 17 by the time of vaccination completion PCI-32765 cost (97 % of women in the study group) are identified as probable

factors increasing the risk of CIN III development after HPV vaccination.”
“Background: A previous genome-wide linkage scan in 295 families of the French Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) showed strong evidence of linkage of the 1p31 region to the combined asthma plus allergic rhinitis (AR) phenotype. Objective: Our purpose was to conduct fine-scale mapping of the 1p31 linkage region to identify the genetic variants associated with asthma plus AR. Methods: Association analyses with the asthma plus rhinitis phenotype were first conducted in the EGEA family sample using the family-based association method (FBAT) and logistic regression. The test of homogeneity of association between asthma plus AR versus asthma alone or AR alone was also applied. Replication of EGEA findings was sought in French-Canadian and United Kingdom family samples. Results: We found a significant association between asthma plus rhinitis and a 1p31

S63845 ic50 genetic variant (P = 2 x 10(-5) for rs12122228, which reached the multiple testing-corrected threshold) in EGEA using FBAT. There was evidence of heterogeneity of association between asthma plus AR versus asthma alone or AR alone (P = .03). A Meta-analysis of FBAT results from EGEA and French-Canadian families improved evidence for both association and heterogeneity (P = 5 x 10(-6) and P = .008, respectively), whereas a meta-analysis of EGEA, French-Canadian, and United Kingdom samples based on logistic regression slightly increased the evidence for heterogeneity. Conclusion:

The single nucleotide polymorphism specifically associated to asthma plus rhinitis is located in the flanking 5′ untranslated region of the nuclear factor I/A (NFIA) gene, a strong candidate gene for asthma and AR.”
“Cordyceps is a rare Cyclopamine datasheet and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris.

“There is a pressing need for new therapies to treat pancr

“There is a pressing need for new therapies to treat pancreatic cancer. In principle, this could

be achieved by taking advantage of signaling pathways that are active in tumor, but not normal, cells. The work described in this study set out to determine whether the activities of three enhancers, which have been reported to be highly responsive to activated ras, differ in pancreatic tumor cells that express wild-type versus constitutively active Kinase Inhibitor Library nmr mutant forms of K-ras. Surprisingly, the three enhancers are active in four different pancreatic tumor cell lines that express either normal K-ras gene or mutant K-ras. Moreover, reducing the concentration of serum in the growth medium from 10% to 0.5% had relatively little effect on the strength of any of the enhancers, although it drastically affected cell growth. importantly, our studies also indicate that MEK is active in pancreatic tumor cells that possess wild-type as well as mutant K-ras, even when cultured in medium that severely limits cell growth. These findings support the hypothesis that the Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk pathway may be constitutively active even in pancreatic tumor cells that express wild-type K-ras. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We describe a general mass spectrometry approach to determine subunit stoichiometry and lipid binding in intact membrane protein complexes. By exploring conditions for preserving interactions

during transmission into the gas phase and for optimally stripping away detergent, by subjecting the complex to multiple collisions, we released the intact complex largely devoid of detergent. This enabled PP2 nmr us to characterize both subunit stoichiometry and lipid binding in 4 membrane protein complexes.”
“Rationale The common methionine (met) for valine (val) at codon 158 (val(158)met) polymorphism in

the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been associated with nicotine dependence, alterations in executive cognitive function, and abstinence-induced working memory deficits in smokers.\n\nObjectives We sought GSK3326595 in vitro to replicate the association of the COMT val allele with abstinence-induced alterations in working memory-related activity in task-positive (executive control) and task-negative (default mode network) regions.\n\nMethods Forty smokers (20 val/val and 20 met/met) performed an N-back task while undergoing blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on two separate occasions: following 72 h of confirmed abstinence and during smoking as usual. An independent sample of 48 smokers who completed the identical N-back task during fMRI in smoking vs. abstinence for another study was used as a validation sample.\n\nResults Contrary to expectations, genotype by session interactions on BOLD signal in executive control regions (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal cingulate/medial prefrontal cortex) revealed significant abstinence-induced reductions in the met/met group, but not the val/val group.