C cortex, PL photobiont layer, Pho photobiont, M medulla, Hy fung

C cortex, PL photobiont layer, Pho photobiont, M medulla, Hy fungal hyphae ROS generation, chlorophyll autofluorescence and lipid peroxidation during IGF-1R inhibitor lichen rehydration Although several works

have described an extracellular oxidative burst during rehydration in some lichen species, virtually nothing is known about intracellular ROS production and its relationship to abiotic stress. In order to determine whether intracellular ROS release follows the rehydration of R. farinacea thalli, 10 μM of the fluorescent probe DFCH2-DA was added to the deionized water XMU-MP-1 ic50 used for rehydration. The samples were observed by fluorescence and confocal microscopy 3-4 h after rehydration. The presence of 2′,7′- dichlorofluorescin (DCF), the fluorescent oxidation product of DCFH2, indicated the intracellular production of free radicals during lichen rehydration

(Figure 2B-D). DCF was especially concentrated in the lichen cortex. No significant green autofluorescence was detected in the absence of the probe (Figure 2A). Confocal microscopy showed discrete points of green fluorescence around several large photobionts (Figure 2E), probably due to mycobiont hyphae tips. Figure 2 ROS Stem Cells inhibitor in rehydrated R. farinacea thalli. Thalli of R. farinacea rehydrated with deionized water and 10 μM DCFH2-DA and observed 3-4 h post-rehydration. A, B, C, D ROS content, as revealed by the green fluorescence emission of DCF under a fluorescence microscope (magnification: 400× for A, B and 1000× for C, D); E overlay of confocal microscopy images reveals ROS distribution around some of the photobionts (green fluorescence); F overlay of confocal microscopy images of ROS content of R. farinacea thalli that had

been rehydrated with c-PTIO 200 μM, arrows point to photobionts photobleached by the confocal laser during the observation (oxPho). Red fluorescence is due to the photobiont’s chlorophyll in all cases. Each micrograph is representative of several images corresponding to independent GBA3 samples. C cortex, M medulla, PL photobiont layer, Pho photobiont, oxPho photobleached photobiont, Hy fungal hyphae A fluorometric kinetics of intracellular free radical production in Ramalina farinacea thalli was performed in order to confirm microscopical data. Figure 3A demonstrates that the rate of intracellular free radical production in recently rehydrated thalli was much higher than the rate of intracellular free radical production in thalli kept in the hydrated state during the previous 24 h. Furthermore, intracellular release of free radicals during rehydration under physiological conditions was biphasic with an initial exponential phase of 20 min followed by a linear phase (Figure 3B). Chlorophyll autofluorescence was simultaneously recorded since this parameter is a surrogate of the levels and integrity of this molecule and therefore of the photosynthetic status of the cell.

EPOS study group European Prospective Osteoporosis Study group

EPOS study group. European Prospective Osteoporosis Study group. selleckchem Osteoporos Int 11:248–254PubMedCrossRef 36. Honkanen K, Honkanen R, Heikkinen L, Kroger H, Saarikoski S (1999) Validity of self-reports of fractures in perimenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 150:511–516PubMed”
“Introduction Bones are subjected to a variety of mechanical loads

during daily activities. In the nineteenth century, Julius Wolff proposed that bones adapt their mass and 3D structure to the loading conditions in order to optimize their load-bearing capacity, and that this process is driven by mechanical stress [1]. For the past centuries, an increasing number of theoretical and experimental results reveal that osteocytes are the pivotal cells orchestrating this biomechanical regulation of bone mass and structure, which is accomplished

by the process of bone remodeling [2–5] Osteocytes are terminally differentiated cells of the osteogenic lineage that are derived from mesenchymal precursor cells. A number of molecules have been identified as important markers of osteocytes, AZD8186 cost such as matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein [6] sclerostin [7], dentin matrix protein-1 [8], and phex protein [8]. The osteocytes are the most abundant cells in adult bone and are constantly spaced throughout the mineralized matrix. Mature osteocytes have a characteristic dendritic cell shape, with processes radiating from the cell body through the canaliculi in different directions. These processes form an intercellular network through gap and adherent junctions with surrounding osteocytes, the cells lining the bone surface and bone marrow. Through this unique 3D network, osteocytes are anatomically placed in a prime position PLEK2 not only to sense deformations driven by stresses placed upon bone, but also to respond with passage of signals to the neighboring cells [9]. For more than a decade now, it is known that the osteocytes are very sensitive to stress applied to intact bone tissue [10–16]. Computer simulation models have shown that mechanosensors

lying at the surface of bone, as osteoblasts and bone lining cells do, would be less sensitive to changes in the loading pattern than the osteocytes, lying within the calcified matrix [3]. Interestingly, targeted ablation of osteocytes in mice disturbs the adaptation of bone to mechanical loading [16]. Osteocytes as key players in the process of bone mechanotransduction It is currently believed that when bones are loaded, the resulting deformation will drive the thin layer of interstitial fluid surrounding the network of osteocytes to flow from regions under high pressure to regions under low pressure [17, 18]. This flow of fluid is sensed by the osteocytes which in turn selleck chemicals produce signaling molecules that can regulate bone resorption through the osteoclasts, and bone formation through the osteoblasts, leading to adequate bone remodeling [17, 18].

Progr Mater Sci 2009, 54:1–67 CrossRef

12 Franke M, Kopl

Progr Mater Sci 2009, 54:1–67.CrossRef

12. Franke M, Koplin T, Simon U: Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in chemiresistors: does the nanoscale matter? Small 2006, 2:36–50.CrossRef 13. Wang B, Zhu LF, Yang JH, Xu NS, Yang GW: Fabrication of a SnO 2 nanowire LY2874455 manufacturer gas sensors and sensor performance for hydrogen. J Phys Chem C 2008, 112:6643–6647.CrossRef 14. Kwoka M, Waczynska N, Kościelniak P, Sitarz M, Szuber J: XPS and TDS comparative studies of L-CVD SnO 2 ultra thin films. Thin Solid Films 2011, 520:913.CrossRef 15. Kwoka M, Ottaviano L, Passacantando M, Santucci S, Czempik G, Szuber J: XPS study of the surface chemistry of L-CVD SnO 2 thin films after oxidation. Thin Solid Films 2005, 490:36–42.CrossRef 16. Wagner CD, Riggs WM, Davis LE, Moulder JF, Milenberger

GE: Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Eden Prairie: Perkin-Elmer; 1979. 17. Kar A, Stroscio MA, Dutta M, Kumari J, Meyyappan M: Observation of ultraviolet emission and effect of surface states on the luminescence from tin oxide nanowires. Appl Phys Lett 2009, 94:101905–1.CrossRef 18. Kar A, Yang J, Dutta M, Stroscio MA, Kumari J, Meyyappan M: Rapid thermal annealing effects on tin oxide nanowires prepared by vapor–liquid-solid YH25448 cost technique. Nanotechnology 2009, 20:065704. 1–4CrossRef 19. Kar A, Stroscio MA, Dutta M, Kumari J, Meyyappan M: Growth and properties of tin oxide nanowires and the effect of annealing conditions. Semicond Sci Technol 2010, 25:024012. 1–9CrossRef 20. Vomiero A, Ferroni

Eltanexor clinical trial M, Comini E, Faglia G, Sberveglieri G: Preparation of radial and longitudinal nanosized heterostructures of In 2 O 3 and SnO 2 . Nano Lett 2007, 7:3553–3558.CrossRef 21. Comini E, Faglia G, Ferroni M, Ponzoni A, Vomiero A, Sberveglieri G: selleck kinase inhibitor Metal oxide nanowires: preparation and application in gas sensing. J Mol Catal A Chem 2009, 305:170–177.CrossRef 22. Sberveglieri G, Concina I, Comini E, Falasconi M, Ferroni M, Sberveglieri V: Synthesis and integration of tin oxide nanowires into an electronic nose. Vacuum 2012, 86:532–535.CrossRef 23. Sberveglieri G, Baratto C, Comini E, Faglia G, Ferroni M, Ponzoni A, Vomiero A: Synthesis and characterization of semiconducting nanowires for gas sensing. Sensors Actuators B 2007, 121:208–213.CrossRef 24. Comini E: Metal oxide nano-crystals for gas sensing. Anal Chim Acta 2006, 568:28–40.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions MS was involved in the preparation of samples, carrying out the SEM study, and engaged in XPS and TDS experiments and data analysis. MK carried out the XPS and TDS experiments, analyzed the experimental data, and drafted the manuscript. EC and JS conceived of the study. DZ was involved in the preparation of samples. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

In passages 1 through 3, five mice were inoculated with each C j

In passages 1 through 3, five mice were inoculated with each C. jejuni strain; ten mice were inoculated with each strain in passage 4. As noted below (Materials and Methods), in this series of experiments, mice in the first passage were inadvertently

shifted from diets containing ~12% fat to ~6% fat just prior to C. jejuni infection for the first passage. This error was not discovered until after the mice had been infected. A previous experiment that allowed a direct comparison of C. jejuni 11168 infected C57BL/6 IL-10-/- mice on the ~12% fat diet and adapted to the ~6% fat diet for at least two weeks prior to infection did not reveal a statistically significant difference in survival, gross pathology or histopathology (data not shown). Therefore, all subsequent passages included a similar dietary shift prior to inoculation in order to maintain constant dietary conditions in the mice across Avapritinib chemical structure the four serial passages. During the first three passages of the serial passage experiment, fecal C. jejuni populations were monitored by plating on C. jejuni selective medium; population sizes were scored on a semi-quantitative scale with ranks from 0 to 4 [40] (Figure 2). Briefly, colonization was scored as 0 if plates had no C. jejuni cfu, level 1 if plates had < 20 cfu, level 2 if plates had > 20 but < 200 cfu, level 3 if plates had > 200 cfu, and

level 4 if plates were covered with a lawn of C. jejuni. Two-way ANOVA was performed on the ranked colonization data from the first three passages with the Holm-Šidák test for post hoc comparisons. For all strains except D0835, ranked population sizes varied with the day of sampling (P = 0.006 for strain Selleckchem AZD5582 11168, 0.004 for strain D2586, 0.028 for strain D2600,

and 0.009 for strain NW). In the four strains where significant differences were found, populations at the time of necropsy in almost all passages were larger than those on days 3 or 4 and sometimes larger than those on days 9 or 10. For strain 11168, Glycogen branching enzyme population sizes on day 3 or 4 were significantly 4EGI-1 mw different from those both on day 9 or 10 and at the time of necropsy (Pcorrected = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively); population sizes on day 9 or 10 were not significantly different from those at the time of necropsy. Furthermore, significant differences in fecal population sizes between passages were found for strains 11168, D2600, and NW. For strain 11168, the comparison between passages was significant for the comparison of passage 1 to both passages 2 and 3 (Pcorrected = 6.8 × 10-7 and 6.0 × 10-8, respectively) and for the comparison of passages 2 and 3 (Pcorrected = 1.2 × 10-3). For strains D2600 and NW, only the comparison between passages 1 and 3 was significant (Pcorrected = 7.4 × 10-4 and 0.017, respectively). The fraction of mice harboring C. jejuni in the jejunum also increased over the serial passage experiments for strains 11168, D0835, and D2600 (Additional file 1, Table S1).

Over the past 10 years, there has been substantial progress in th

Over the past 10 years, there has been substantial progress in the treatment of

MM, prospective TGFbeta inhibitor randomized trials have shown the superiority of high-doses of chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) over standard therapy (CT) and new drugs, such as immunomodulatory agents and proteasome inhibitors, have shown effectiveness against disease. These developments may have led to changes in the outcomes of IgD MM. In this report we present the results of a retrospective analysis of 17 cases with IgD MM treated with CT or HDT/ASCT in six institutions of Multiple myeloma Latium-Region GIMEMA Working Group between 1993 and 2009. Design and methods A retrospective analysis

was carried out of 17 patients with IgD MM diagnosed from 1993 to 2009 in six institutions from Multiple Myeloma Latium-Region GIMEMA Working Group. Patients who had overt MM based on International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) diagnostic criteria were selected. Definition of response Selleckchem Captisol disease response was assessed using the IMWG criteria [16, 17]. Briefly, a partial response (PR) was defined as a 50% or higher decrease in the serum monoclonal protein (M-protein) levels from baseline and a reduction 90% or greater in 24 hour urine M-protein excretion or less than 200 mg/24 hours; a very good partial respone RXDX-101 mw (VGPR) required a 90% or greater reduction

in serum M-protein and urinary M-protein less than 100 mg/24 hours or M-protein detectable by immunofixation but not by electrophoresis. A complete response (CR) was defined as negative serum and urine immunofixation and less than 5% DNA ligase plasma cells on bone marrow examination. Disease that did not satisfy the criteria for PR, VGPR, CR or progressive disease was classified as stable disease (SD). Disease progression required any of the following: 25% or greater increase from lowest response value in serum M-protein (absolute ≥ 0.5 gr/dl) or urine M-protein (absolute ≥ 200 mg/24 hours). Progression free survival (PFS) was calculated from start of first treatment to disease progression or death from any cause, or the date the patient was last known to be in remission. Overall survival (OS) was calculated from start of first treatment to the date of death or the date the patient was last known to be alive. Duration of response (DOR) was calculated from the time of first response achievement, that is at least PR, to the time of disease progression, with deaths owing to causes other than progression not counted, but censored. For the analysis of treatment responses, PFS and OS, the patients were divided into two groups: one group was treated with HDT/ASCT, the other group received treatment with conventional-dose chemotherapy.

5 55 4–110 6 15 73 2 41 0–120 7 6 42 9* 28 1–62 9 4 70 8 19 3–181

5 55.4–110.6 15 73.2 41.0–120.7 6 42.9* 28.1–62.9 4 70.8 19.3–181.2 Respiratory disease 13 142.4 75.8–243.5 3 69.7 14.4–203.8 4 34.4* 9.4–88.0 0 0 0–235.3 Other causes 9 49.8* 22.7–94.5 6 68.9 25.3–149.9 20 73.8 45.1–114.0 0 0 0–128.3 Unknown 4     0     4     1     Neoplasm, cause specific 28     11     41     2      Oesophagus

find protocol 0 0 0–434.8 0 0 0–801.0 4 301.2 82.1–771.2 0 0 0–3,088.4  Stomach and small intestine 2 69.3 8.4–250.3 2 161.6 19.6–583.6 3 81.4 16.8–237.9 1 303.0 7.7–1,688.4  Large intestine 1 46.8 1.2–260.5 2 181.5 22.0–655.5 4 111.1 30.3–248.4 0 0 0–988.7  Rectum 2 213.5 25.9–771.0 0 0 0–701.6 4 317.7 86.6–813.5 0 0 0–2,651.1  Liver and biliary passages 1 181.2 4.6–1,009.4 1 354.6 9.0–1,975.8 2 217.9 26.4–787.0 0 0 0–4,048.3  Pancreas 2 148.7 18.0–537.2 0 0 0–429.8 1 44.6 1.1–248.5 0 0 0–1,673.6  Trachea and lung cancer 13 107.0 57.0–183.0 4 62.0 19.9–158.9 9 43.4* 19.8–82.3 0 0 0–181.5  Skin 0 0 0–1,089.4 0 0 0–2,024.1 3 575.8* 118.8–1,682.8 0 0 0–8,096.6  Kidney 1 127.7 3.2–711.6 0 0 0–690.3 1 65.9 1.7–367.3 0 0 0–2,674.8  Prostate cancer 2 67.1 8.1–242.4 0 0 0–208.8 3 75.2 15.5–219.8 0 0 0–696.7  Bladder cancer 3 252.3 52.0–737.4 0 0 0–513.0 0 0 0–169.3 0 0 0–1,849.2  Brain 0 0 0–649.8 0 0 0–1,105.4 1 99.5 2.5–554.4 0 0 0–4,608.8  Other lymphoma 0 0 0–606.4 STA-9090 0 0 0–963.3

1 90.8 2.3–506.1 0 0 0–3,609.3  Multiple myeloma 0 0 0–367.4 0 0 0–1,232.8 1 129.0 3.3–718.9 1 1,538.5 39.0–8,571  Leukaemia 0 0 0–374.0 1 249.4 6.3–1,389.4 2 155.5 18.8–561.8 0 0 0–2,826.1  Unspecified 1 75.6 1.9–422.1 1 151.8 3.8–845.7 2 98.9 12.0–357.3 0 0 0–1,751.9 * P value <0.05 Discussion After 52 years of follow up, this cohort of 570 workers exposed to dieldrin and aldrin does not demonstrate any excess cancer mortality risk that could be related to exposure. There were no additional cases since the previous update (Swaen

et Adenosine al. None of the other epidemiological or animal studies Epigenetics Compound Library cell line available report a similar finding.

(2) Sufficient electrolyte pore filling in vertically branched st

(2) Sufficient electrolyte pore filling in vertically branched structures leads to efficient hole scavenging at ZnO/dye interfaces, lowering the locus of

recombination [25]. Although the power conversion www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-263.html efficiency of the present work is lower than the highest value reported in the literature [6], our principal concern is on whether the tree-like nanostructure can improve on the conversion efficiency of a DSSC composed of nanorods. Transmembrane Transporters This study determined that a tree-like ZnO nanostructure synthesized through effortless and gentle reaction conditions is highly efficient and economically viable as a photoelectrode for DSSCs. Further work will improve the cell configuration and conversion efficiency. Conclusions This study prepared tree-like ZnO structures and ZnO nanorods for use as photoanodes in DSSCs. DSSCs composed of tree-like ZnO nanostructures were found to show greater photovoltaic performance than DSSCs

containing nanorods. Comparatively, tree-like ZnO structures exhibit a larger internal surface area for efficient dye loading and light harvesting, a greater available pore volume, reduced charge recombination, and improved interconnectivity for faster electron transport than ZnO nanorods. These improvements yield a 15% enhancement in power conversion. Acknowledgements This work was selleck supported by the Green Technology Research Center of Chang Gung University and the National Science Council (NSC) of Taiwan under contract numbers NSC100-2815-C-155-013-E, NSC100-2112-M-182-004, and NSC101-2112-M-182-003-MY3. References 1. Hsu CP, Lee unless KM, Huang JTW, Lin CY, Lee CH, Wang PL, Tsai SY, Ho KC: EIS analysis on low temperature fabrication of TiO 2 porous films for dye-sensitized solar cells. Electrochim Acta 2008, 53:7514–7522.CrossRef 2. Yella A, Lee HW, Tsao HN, Yi C, Chandiran AK, Nazeeruddin MK, Diau EW-G, Yeh CY: Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells

with cobalt (II/III)–based redox electrolyte exceed 12 percent efficiency. Science 2011, 334:629–634.CrossRef 3. Nissfolk J, Fredin K, Hagfeldt A, Boschloo G: Recombination and transport processes in dye-sensitized solar cells investigated under working conditions. J Phys Chem B 2006, 110:17715–17718.CrossRef 4. Gratzel M: Solar energy conversion by dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells. Inorg Chem 2005, 44:6841–6851.CrossRef 5. Gratzel M: Conversion of sunlight to electric power by nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells. J Photochem Photobiol A 2004, 164:3–14.CrossRef 6. Zhang Q, Dandeneau CS, Zhou X, Cao G: ZnO nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells. Adv Mater 2009, 21:4087–1408.CrossRef 7. Park K, Zhang QF, Garcia BB, Zhou XY, Jeong YH, Cao GZ: Effect of an ultrathin TiO 2 layer coated on submicrometer-sized ZnO nanocrystallite aggregates by atomic layer deposition on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. Adv Mater 2010, 22:2329–2332.CrossRef 8.

Bacterial contact with host cells was increased by centrifugation

Bacterial contact with host cells was increased by centrifugation of plates at 600 g for 5 minutes. After 3 hours of incubation at 37°C, bacteria bound to PTECs were measured by lysing cells with 1% Triton X-100 after vigorous washing to remove unattached bacteria. This would include internalised bacteria, but since binding exceeded internalisation by approximately 50 fold no correction was made. To assess the number of internalised bacteria, after 3 hours

incubation PTECs were washed 3 times and then incubated for 1 hour in medium containing 100 μg/ml gentamicin to kill extra-cellular bacteria. Cells were then washed and lysed in 1% Triton X-100 in sterile H2O, and then plated on CLED agar plates (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK). The agar plates were incubated at 37°C for 16 hours and the c.f.u counted. PR-171 concentration To investigate the involvement of type 1 fimbriae in the complement -dependent internalisation process, D-mannose or glucose was added to PTEC monolayers 20 minutes before bacteria were added and the internalisation assay carried out as above. In each experiment assays were performed in quadruplicate. Assessment of bacterial fimbrial adhesin expression Expression of fimbriae was determined by haemagglutination of guinea pig (Harlan SeraLab, Loughborough, UK) or human erythrocytes

JNK inhibitor in the presence and absence of mannose. Erythrocytes were prepared in 0.85% sodium chloride or 50 mM D-mannose in 0.85% sodium chloride (3% v/v). Bacterial cultures were centrifuged at 6,000 g for 6 minutes and resuspended to 1 × 1010 cfu/ml in 0.85% sodium chloride. One hundred μl of E. coli suspension was added to an equal volume of erythrocyte solution on white tiles and gently rocked at room temperature for two minutes. Agglutination of

guinea pig erythrocytes from and the inhibition of agglutination in the presence of D-mannose confirmed the presence of type 1 fimbriae. P fimbriae were identified by agglutination of human erythrocytes that was not inhibited by addition of mannose. Detection of haemolysin production To demonstration of haemolysin production bacteria were serially selleck chemical diluted 1 in 10 in PBS and 20 μl (about 2 × 106 bacteria) plated onto sheep blood agar (Oxoid). Plates were incubated for 16 hours at 37°C. Production of haemolysin was determined by haemolysis of the sheep erythrocytes producing a clear ring of agar around individual colonies. Presence of the CNF1 gene CNF1 gene expression was determined by RT-PCR. The genomic DNA from E. coli strains was extracted using a quick alkaline lysis method [17]. A single colony was suspended in 25 μl of 0.5 N NaOH and incubated at room temperature for 30 minutes. 25 μl of 1 M HCl was added and the lysate diluted in 450 μl of sterile water, spun at 6,000 g for 6 minutes and the supernatant collected. PCR was carried out with 5 μl of lysate, 12.

The amounts of charge transfer and

The amounts of charge transfer and Epigenetics Compound Library mw adsorption energy [35] for the

possible configurations of TCNQ/graphene were summarized in Table 1. Our calculation also supported the limited charge transfer due to strong intermolecular repulsive interaction [35, 36]. The effective charge transfer was found to be around 0.47 e per single TCNQ molecule when graphene sheet was sandwiched by two TCNQ molecules with the lowest adsorption energy, although maximum charge transfer amount was only 0.29 e in the case of adsorption on one side. The lowest adsorption energy indicates Poziotinib purchase that adhesion of graphene flakes is improved via interflake TCNQ molecules. These calculation results supported the model of RGO + TCNQ complex films as shown in Figure 3b. The analysis on distribution of the lowest unoccupied molecular level (LUMO) and the highest occupied molecular level (HOMO) suggests that LUMO is delocalized over π orbitals of graphene and HOMO shows strong localization on TCNQ molecule as shown in Figure 5. This confirms that charge transfer between TCNQ and graphene occurs. Furthermore, the electronic states of TCNQ/graphene learn more systems were calculated using the optimized configurations. Total density of states (DOS) of TCNQ/graphene showed clearly strong acceptor levels at 0.3 eV

below the Dirac point, resulting in the finite DOS close to the Fermi level. This suggested adsorbed TCNQ depleted the electrons from valence bands of graphene. Another important feature was the projected density of states (pDOS) of graphene around the Dirac point. The pDOS was not significantly affected by the adsorption of TCNQ even though the conductivity of graphene can be reduced by added charged impurities from adsorbed TCNQ as shown in Figure 6. This result does not conflict Fenbendazole to the data of electrochemical top-gated transistor study [39]. Table 1 Summary of calculation results for

TCNQ/graphene charge transfer systems   4 × 4 6 × 6 8 × 8 4 × 4 both 6 × 6 both 8 × 8 both Change transfer (e/molecule) 0.16 0.25 0.29 0.26 0.47 0.56 Sheet carrier conc. (1013 cm-2) 1.86 1.32 0.86 3.08 2.48 1.68 Distance [Å} 3.06 2.90 3.02 3.11 2.99 3.10 Absorption energy (kcal mol-1) -32.91 -38.86 -34.25 -67.72 -74.86 -66.14 Values in italics under the 6 × 6 both configuration show the lowest adsorption energy. Figure 5 Plots of wave functions of LUMO and HOMO levels. (a) Plot of the wave function of the LUMO level in TCNQ/graphene system at Γ point. LUMO is delocalized over π orbitals of graphene. (b) Plot of the wave function of the HOMO level shows strong localization on TCNQ molecule. Red and green lobes are of equal amplitude and opposite sign. Figure 6 Total and projected DOS (pDOS) for TCNQ/graphene system. Red and black lines correspond to total DOS and graphene pDOS, respectively. Fermi level is set to zero.

Therefore, this self-compliant W/TaO x /TiN device will have grea

Therefore, this self-compliant W/TaO x /TiN device will have great potential

for future non-volatile memory application. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Science Council (NSC) of Taiwan, under contract no. NSC-102-2221-E-182-057-MY2. The authors are grateful to Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories (EOL)/Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), Hsinchu, for their support of the patterned wafers. References 1. Waser R, Dittmann R, Staikov G, Szot K: Redox-based Ipatasertib molecular weight resistive switching memories: nanoionic mechanisms, prospects, and challenges. Adv Mater 2009, 21:2632.CrossRef 2. Lee M-J, Lee CB, Lee D, Lee SR, Chang M, Hur JH, Kim Y-B, Kim C-J, Seo DH, Seo S, Chung UI, Yoo I-K, this website Kim K: A fast, high-endurance and scalable non-volatile memory device made from asymmetric Ta 2 O 5− x /TaO 2− x bilayer structures. Nat Mater 2011, 10:625.CrossRef 3. Prakash A, Jana D, Maikap S: TaO x -based resistive switching memories: prospective and challenges. Nanoscale Res Lett 2013, 8:418.CrossRef 4. Long S, Cagli C, Ielmini D, Liu M, Suñé J: Reset statistics of NiO – based resistive switching GW786034 datasheet memories . IEEE Electron Device Lett 2011, 32:1570.CrossRef 5. Panda D, Dhar A, Ray SK: Nonvolatile and unipolar resistive switching characteristics of pulsed laser ablated NiO films. J Appl Phys 2010, 108:104513.CrossRef 6. Feng M, Yang

selleck screening library JJ, Julien B, Gilberto MR, Williams RS: Observation of two resistance switching modes in TiO 2 memristive devices electroformed at low current. Nanotechnology 2011, 22:254007.CrossRef 7. Rahaman SZ, Maikap S, Tien TC, Lee HY, Chen WS, Chen FT, Kao MJ, Tsai MJ: Excellent resistive

memory characteristics and switching mechanism using a Ti nanolayer at the Cu/TaO x interface. Nanoscale Res Lett 2012, 7:345.CrossRef 8. Chen YS, Lee HY, Chen PS, Wu TY, Wang CC, Tzeng PJ, Chen F, Tsai MJ, Lien C: An ultrathin forming-free HfO x resistance memory with excellent electrical performance. IEEE Electron Device Lett 2010, 31:1473.CrossRef 9. Long S, Lian X, Cagli C, Cartoixá X, Rurali R, Miranda E, Jiménez D, Perniola L, Liu M, Suñé J: Quantum-size effects in hafnium-oxide resistive switching. Appl Phys Lett 2013, 102:183505.CrossRef 10. Chen YY, Goux L, Clima S, Govoreanu B, Degraeve R, Kar GS, Fantini A, Groeseneken G, Wouters DJ, Jurczak M: Endurance/retention trade-off on HfO 2 /metal cap 1T1R bipolar RRAM. IEEE Trans Electron Devices 2013, 60:1114.CrossRef 11. Lin CY, Wu CY, Hu C, Tseng TY: Bistable resistive switching in Al 2 O 3 memory thin films. J Electrochem Soc 2007, 154:G189.CrossRef 12. Banerjee W, Maikap S, Rahaman SZ, Prakash A, Tien TC, Li WC, Yang JR: Improved resistive switching memory characteristics using core-shell IrOx nano-dots in Al 2 O 3 /WO x bilayer structure. J Electrochem Soc 2012, 159:H177.CrossRef 13.