10,11 Three different commensal bacterial strains from humans (Lactobacillus salivarius, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis) were selected, selleck kinase inhibitor and their capacity to translocate in the in vitro M-cell model system and in vivo was confirmed. Results confirmed that differential translocation is evident at the level of the M cell in a pattern that is distinct from differential rates of internalization by monocytes for the same bacteria. Importantly, each bacterium was found to induce a different pattern of gene expression in M cells demonstrating for the
first time an immunosensory discriminatory function of M cells to commensal bacteria. Female BALB/c mice (Harlan, Bicester, Oxon, UK) aged 6–8 weeks were housed under specific pathogen-free
conditions and received food and water ad libitum. Mice were killed by cervical dislocation. All animals were housed in conventional animal facilities cared for in compliance with protocols and procedures approved by the Animal Experimentation Ethics Committee of University College Cork. Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius strain UCC118 was cultured PI3K inhibitor at 37° under anaerobic conditions for 24 hr in de Man–Rogosa–Sharpe broth (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK). Escherichia coli HB101 (German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Braunschweig, Germany) was cultured in lysogeny broth at 37° under aerobic conditions for 24 hr with constant shaking. Bacteroides fragilis CIT01, kindly provided by Dr Jim O’Mahony, Cork Institute of Technology was cultured at 37° under anaerobic conditions for 24 hr in brain heart infusion broth (Oxoid) supplemented with 0·05%l-cysteine SB-3CT hydrochloride (Sigma, Dorset, UK). Bacterial viability was assessed using the Live/Dead BacLight viability and counting system (Invitrogen, Paisley, UK) in 0·85% sterile NaCl solution on an Accuri Flow cytometer (BD Biosciences, Erembodegem, Belgium). Plate counts were also performed for each strain with the
respective agar plates and gave corresponding results to the Live/Dead stain protocol. The Caco-2 derivative C2BBe1 epithelial cell line (ATCC CRL-2102; American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA) was maintained in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM; Gibco, Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; Sigma), 100 μg/ml penicillin and 100 U/ml streptomycin (Gibco), 100 μm non-essential amino acids (Gibco) and 0·01 mg/ml transferrin (Calbiochem, San Diego, CA). C2BBe1 cells were seeded on a Millicell hanging cell culture insert (Millipore, Billerica, MA) with a 3·0-μm pore size at a density of 2 × 105 cells/insert and cultured for 21 days until the transepithelial electrical resistance was > 300 Ω·cm2 when cells were fully differentiated.