Aviat Space Environ Med 2009; 80:1012-7.\n\nIntroduction: There is little evidence to support the usefulness in monitoring respiration during casualty triage and transport as an early indicator of hemorrhage severity and trauma patient outcome. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that hyperventilation can be elicited by progressive reductions in central blood Selleckchem Ilomastat volume independent of metabolic stimuli. Methods: Progressive central hypovolemia was induced in 10 healthy subjects (5 men, 5 women) by applying lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The LBNP protocol consisted
of a 5-min controlled rest period (0% LBNP) followed by progressive 5-min chamber decompressions Until the onset of hemodynamic decompensation (LBNP(max)). During each LBNP stage, total minute ventilation volume ((V) over dot(E)), tidal volume (V(T)), respiratory rate, oxygen uptake ((V) over dot(2)), end-tidal CO(2) (E(T)CO(2)), arterial oxygen saturation (S(p)O(2)),
and venous selleck chemical blood pH and lactate were measured. Results: Compared with baseline, (V) over dotO(2), S(p)O(2), PO(2), PCO(2), pH, and lactate were unaltered throughout LBNP. (V) over dot(E) Was unaltered through 80% of LBNP tolerance, but increased by 54% during LBNP(max) as a result primarily of elevated V(T), while E(T)CO(2) was reduced. Conclusions: increased (V) over dot(E) at LBNP(max) combined with reduced E(T)CO(2) in the absence of changes in blood and systemic metabolic stimuli support the hypothesis that severe reductions in central blood volume drive hyperventilation. The endogenous SB273005 purchase “respiratory
pump” may be a protective strategy to optimize cardiac filling in conditions of central hypovolemic hypotension, but its late appearance indicates that respiratory parameters may not be useful as a clinical metric for early prediction of patient outcome during hemorrhage.”
“Introduction. Pruritus is one of the common problems in patients on hemodialysis. There are several causes for pruritus, and different treatment modalities are applied to control it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of capsaicin on pruritus, compared with placebo, in patients on hemodialysis.\n\nMaterials and Methods. This randomized double-blinded crossover clinical trial was performed on 34 patients on hemodialysis with uremic pruritus. The patients were divided into 2 groups, one group received capsaicin 0.03% and the other, placebo, for 4 weeks. Treatment was stopped for 2 weeks as washout period and continued as a cross-over technique. Pruritus scores were analyzed and compared.\n\nResults. Thirty-four patients on long-term hemodialysis, 14 men and 20 women with a mean age of 57.0 +/- 18.6 years were studied. The mean of pruritus score before capsaicin treatment was 15.9 +/- 6.3, which was reduced to 6.4 +/- 3.9, 4.7 +/- 3.1, 3.2 +/- 2.9, and 2.5 +/- 2.5 on weeks 1 to 4, respectively (P < .001).