In contrast, in anergic Th1 cells, p21Cip1 persists and is available to bind to inhibit the MAPK important in early T-cell activation. In addition to partnering with cdk, p21Cip1 can form a binary complex with PCNA.30 PCNA is induced in activated T cells and when T-cell proliferation ceases, synthesis and accumulation of PCNA also stops.13 In case of genetic damage, p53-dependent up-regulation of p21Cip1 leads to cdk-independent inhibition of PCNA-dependent
DNA replication allowing time for DNA repair.30,31 p21Cip1 interaction with PCNA results in the inhibition of PCNA and thereby causes G1 and G2 block in T cells.14,32 There was some association of p21Cip1 with PCNA in stimulated control Th1 cells, but the functional significance of this low-level interaction was not determined. The interaction between p21Cip1 and PCNA was not increased in anergic Th1 cells, which
suggests that PCNA inhibition FK228 by p21Cip1 is probably not the cause of proliferative unresponsiveness in these Th1 cells. p21Cip1 in anergic Th1 cells instead appears to work via the inhibition of MAPK, specifically p-JNK and p-c-jun. In T cells, productive antigen stimulation triggers the activation of MAPK including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 and JNK.33 The JNK is activated through the dual phosphorylation of its Thr and Tyr residues by mitogen-activated kinase kinase selleck compound 4 (MKK4) and MKK7. Activated JNK in turn phosphorylates c-jun in its N terminus, activating the c-jun-containing AP-1 complexes.34 Activation of AP-1 transcription factor eventually results in increased IL-2 transcription. Others have shown defective expression and function of the AP-1 transcription factor as well as reduced JNK
activity in anergic T cells.18–20,35 (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate In accordance with these earlier studies, c-fos and c-jun activity was decreased in Th1 cells anergized by exposure to n-butyrate. Although an ELISA-based method was used, the readout reflects the activity rather than the binding of the transcription factors because the primary antibody provided with this kit is specific for an epitope on the bound and active form of the transcription factor. p21Cip1 has been shown to interact with JNK and inhibit its activity.15,16 p21Cip1-deficient fibroblasts had higher basal levels of JNK1 than controls, an effect that was reversed if the cells were transfected with p21Cip1.16 In T cells JNK activation following release from G1 arrest correlated with dissociation from p21Cip1.17 In T cells, JNK not only promotes IL-2 gene transcription through the activation of c-jun and AP-1,36 but also directly promotes IL-2 messenger RNA stability.37 Consequently, the finding that p21Cip1 interacts with p-JNK and p-c-jun in Th1 cells anergized by exposure to n-butyrate could explain the lack of IL-2 production and related proliferation in these Th1 cells.