In contrast, in anergic Th1 cells, p21Cip1 persists and is availa

In contrast, in anergic Th1 cells, p21Cip1 persists and is available to bind to inhibit the MAPK important in early T-cell activation. In addition to partnering with cdk, p21Cip1 can form a binary complex with PCNA.30 PCNA is induced in activated T cells and when T-cell proliferation ceases, synthesis and accumulation of PCNA also stops.13 In case of genetic damage, p53-dependent up-regulation of p21Cip1 leads to cdk-independent inhibition of PCNA-dependent

DNA replication allowing time for DNA repair.30,31 p21Cip1 interaction with PCNA results in the inhibition of PCNA and thereby causes G1 and G2 block in T cells.14,32 There was some association of p21Cip1 with PCNA in stimulated control Th1 cells, but the functional significance of this low-level interaction was not determined. The interaction between p21Cip1 and PCNA was not increased in anergic Th1 cells, which

suggests that PCNA inhibition FK228 by p21Cip1 is probably not the cause of proliferative unresponsiveness in these Th1 cells. p21Cip1 in anergic Th1 cells instead appears to work via the inhibition of MAPK, specifically p-JNK and p-c-jun. In T cells, productive antigen stimulation triggers the activation of MAPK including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 and JNK.33 The JNK is activated through the dual phosphorylation of its Thr and Tyr residues by mitogen-activated kinase kinase selleck compound 4 (MKK4) and MKK7. Activated JNK in turn phosphorylates c-jun in its N terminus, activating the c-jun-containing AP-1 complexes.34 Activation of AP-1 transcription factor eventually results in increased IL-2 transcription. Others have shown defective expression and function of the AP-1 transcription factor as well as reduced JNK

activity in anergic T cells.18–20,35 (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate In accordance with these earlier studies, c-fos and c-jun activity was decreased in Th1 cells anergized by exposure to n-butyrate. Although an ELISA-based method was used, the readout reflects the activity rather than the binding of the transcription factors because the primary antibody provided with this kit is specific for an epitope on the bound and active form of the transcription factor. p21Cip1 has been shown to interact with JNK and inhibit its activity.15,16 p21Cip1-deficient fibroblasts had higher basal levels of JNK1 than controls, an effect that was reversed if the cells were transfected with p21Cip1.16 In T cells JNK activation following release from G1 arrest correlated with dissociation from p21Cip1.17 In T cells, JNK not only promotes IL-2 gene transcription through the activation of c-jun and AP-1,36 but also directly promotes IL-2 messenger RNA stability.37 Consequently, the finding that p21Cip1 interacts with p-JNK and p-c-jun in Th1 cells anergized by exposure to n-butyrate could explain the lack of IL-2 production and related proliferation in these Th1 cells.

© 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc Microsurgery, 2010 “

© 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2010. “
“Recidivating pressure sores are a frequent complication in meningomyelocele patients because of their limitation in motility and their scarce ability

to monitor the pressure applied on insensate areas while seated. We report the utilization of the sensate pedicled anterolateral thigh perforator flap for reconstruction of ischiatic sores in meningomyelocele patients. Between May 2011 and September 2013, five patients underwent transfer of a sensate pedicled anterolateral thigh flap, by an intermuscular passageway through the upper thigh, to reach the ischial defect. Flap was properly harvested from the thigh after assessment of the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve sensitive area with the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device. In all cases the flap reached Selleckchem Veliparib the ischial defect harmlessly, healing was uneventful with no immediate nor late complications. Each patient showed persistence of sensitivity at the reconstructed area and no recurrent ischiatic sore was observed at mean follow-up of 26.4 months. The sensate

pedicled anterolateral thigh flap is a valuable solution for coverage of recurrent ischial sores in meningomyelocele patients, in which pressure consciousness is fundamental. The intermuscular passageway allows to reduce the distance between flap’s vascular pedicle origin and the ischial defect, hence to use the more reliable skin from the middle third of the anterolateral thigh. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2014. “
“Background: PI3K inhibitor No consensus exists among microsurgeons regarding the role of intravenous (IV) heparin in digital replantation/revascularization. The current experience of the Provincial Replantation Center in Quebec was reviewed over a 4-year period. Methods:

An initial retrospective review of all revascularized or reimplanted digits at our Replantation Center from April 2004 to April 2006 was conducted. Then, data of all patients treated at our center from January 08 to September see more 08 were prospectively collected. The two cohorts were compared with regards to demographics, injury characteristics, postoperative thromboprophylaxis medication as well as complication and success rates. Proportions were compared using χ2 tests/Fisher’s exact tests. Multivariate analysis was conducted with logistic regression. Results: 175 digits were treated from April 2004 to April 2006, including 104 revascularizations and 71 amputations. IV heparin was used in 35.1% of the cases and was associated with a 3.59-fold (95% CI, 1.55–8.31) increase risk of developing a complication compared with cases where heparin was not used (P = 0.001). In 2008, 106 digits were treated. IV heparin was used in 14.6% of the cases and was not significantly associated with a higher complication rate compared with cases where heparin was not used (P = 0.612). Both cohorts’ success rates were very similar (P = 0.557).

Often, when cultures taken at the infected site become positive,

Often, when cultures taken at the infected site become positive, the infection is already at an advanced stage and removal of the prosthesis in order to increase the efficiency of the antibiotic therapy becomes unavoidable. To develop efficient tools that would Navitoclax solubility dmso improve the medical decision making and help to combat the infections related to medical implants, two strategies can be proposed: the first

is preventive and the second is curative. The preventive strategy consists of inhibiting the bacterial adhesion on implant surfaces, and in detecting bacteria in blood circulation in early stages of infection, in order to eliminate them using the conventional antibiotics. The curative method also consists of enhancing the action of antibiotics by dissolution

of the biofilm and dispersal of sessile bacteria into their sensitive planktonic state. These two strategies could be accomplished using tools of molecular genetics and/or biochemistry. The genetic approach, at the preventive level, may enable the control the expression of genes involved in the early stages of adhesion and biofilm formation. The curative aspect should be able to control the expression of genes involved in bacterial detachment and dispersal. The genetic aspect will not be discussed in this Minireview. The biochemical approaches of both strategies (preventive and curative) may consist of acting on the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the biofilm matrix, by blocking their biosynthesis or by enzymatically degrading them. EPS antigenic properties FAD may be

explored for the early AUY-922 molecular weight detection of antibodies directed against the biofilm EPS in the early stages of the biofilm formation. In the present Minireview, we discuss some aspects of the biochemical approach to the eradication and detection of staphylococcal biofilm-associated infection, developed by our research group. We mainly focused on the chemical characterization of biofilm EPS of S. epidermidis and other CoNS. We also studied the sensitivity of the biofilm to different degrading enzymes, taking into account their composition and attempting to specifically target the biofilm constituents. Poly-β(1,6)-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG), a characteristic component of staphylococcal biofilms with a well-established chemical structure, was tested as a coating agent in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for potential serodiagnostics. Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A (ATCC 35984) has been used as a preferential model biofilm-forming strain by a number of authors. Its extracellular polysaccharide antigens were isolated and studied independently by several different research groups (for a recent review, see Otto, 2009). An extracellular capsular polysaccharide adhesin (PS/A) was first isolated by the group of G. Pier (Boston, MA) (Tojo et al., 1988) from the culture supernatant of S. epidermidis strain RP62A.

It is reported that different Fcγ receptors on neutrophils posses

It is reported that different Fcγ receptors on neutrophils possess different phagocytosis capabilities, and CD32 (FcγRIIA) is the most Maraviroc datasheet efficient receptor among them (Rivas-Fuentes et al., 2010). The affinity of human CD32 increases during neutrophil activation leading to CD32-dependent ligand binding and signaling (Nagarajan et al., 2000). It has been documented that BCG has the capacity to increase the expression of CD32 (Suttmann et al., 2003). Similarly, in this study,

expression of CD32 was increased in BCG- and H37Rv-infected neutrophils indicating activation followed by functional upregulation of neutrophils. Another important FCγ receptor CD64 (FcγRI) that induces high respiratory burst (Hoffmeyer et al., 1997) was also upregulated in H37Rv-infected neutrophils, which further indicates a physiological response to infection (Allen et al., 2002). Neutrophils recognize pathogens via TLRs and activate various pathways

that contribute to the repertoire of defense mechanisms utilized by the immune system. Among TLRs, TLR2 is important in MTB infection and has been extensively studied. Another receptor TLR4, although important in innate immunity, Staurosporine research buy has no direct role in protective immunity in mycobacterial infections (Reiling et al., 2002). However, it mediates the signals responsible for the production of MTB-induced IL-17A response, which strongly relies on the endogenous IL-1 pathway (van de Veerdonk before et al., 2010). In another study, it was demonstrated that after Mtb infection neither TLR2,

-4 and -9, nor MyD88 is required for the induction of adaptive T cell responses. Rather, MyD88, but not TLR2, -4 and -9, is critical for triggering macrophage effector mechanisms central to antimycobacterial defense (Hölscher et al., 2008). In this study, an increased TLR4 expression was observed in H37Rv-stimulated neutrophils, which reflects the fact that TLR4 mediated activation of neutrophils occur during MTB infections; however, the activation does not necessarily lead to protective immune response. Neutrophils are traditionally known to express limited number of chemokine receptors; however, under inflammatory conditions, they undergo phenotypic changes, enabling them to expand their chemokine receptor expression pattern and respond to chemokines that are functionally inactive under resting conditions. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 that is normally inactive on neutrophils gets expressed when induced with TLR ligands (Hartl et al., 2008). Here, the increased expression of CXCR3 on H37Rv-infected neutrophils indicates that H37Rv has the capacity to induce the expression of CXCR3, whereas BCG and Mw are not effective enough to stimulate its expression. Neutrophils undergo spontaneous apoptosis that make them susceptible to engulfment by monocytes/macrophages.

In Irf5−/− and Irf5+/− RII Yaa mice, all four IgG isotypes were d

In Irf5−/− and Irf5+/− RII.Yaa mice, all four IgG isotypes were dramatically decreased, whereas sera IgG1 levels in Irf5+/− RII mice were comparable with Irf5+/+ RII mice [[23]]. In the pristane-induced model of murine lupus, we found that Daporinad Irf5−/− mice had only striking reductions in IgG2a/c and IgG2b antibody levels whereas IgG1 levels were elevated. These data suggest

that a lack of Irf5 does not reduce long-lived IgG1 expressing plasma cells. After class switching, autoreactive B cells may undergo further selection and expansion. In order to address the role of IRF5 in selecting or expanding B-cell clones with autoreactive specificity, we examined the production of antigen-specific IgG1. We found that Irf5−/− mice are deficient in their production of lupus IgG1 autoantibodies, suggesting that a mechanism other than class switching regulates antigen specificity in these mice. Instead, IRF5 may be critical for selection or expansion of autoreactive clones from the B-cell repertoire. The selective impairment of TLR7- and not TLR9-associated IgG1 autoantibody production indicates

a distinct and likely more critical role for IRF5 in mediating TLR7 signaling in pristane-induced lupus. Whether this proves true in human SLE is not currently known. CSR of B cells from IgM to IgG is dependent on the cognate interaction of B cells with Th cells [[49]]. Although CD40L–CD40 interaction is necessary to initiate Ab isotype switching [[50]], it is assumed that Th cell-derived cytokines determine whether B cells are switched to IgG1 or IgG2a [[51]]. IFN-γ and IL-4 are key cytokines of Th1 and Th2 cells, respectively, although IL-5, Selumetinib manufacturer IL-10, and IL-13 are also produced by Th2 cells. To determine whether the cytokine milieu in Irf5−/− mice contribute to their production

(or inhibition) of IgG isotypes, we measured serum cytokine levels in response to pristane. The Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 were significantly upregulated in the serum of pristane-injected Irf5−/− mice; intracellular IL-4 was also elevated Amisulpride in CD4+ T cells from pristane-injected Irf5−/− mice (Fig. 4A). IL-4 and IL-5 have been shown to be protective against SLE in certain murine models [[35, 52]]. These data support a Th2 polarization in Irf5−/− mice that would be expected to drive IgG1 class switching. However, Th2 polarization does not necessarily entail inhibition of Th1 as Th1/Th2 coexist and tipping the balance one way or the other is all that may be required to affect a systemic autoimmune disease such as lupus [[53, 54]]. Indeed, we did not observe downregulation of the key Th1 cytokine IFN-γ in T cells. Given that IgG2a/c CSR is induced by IFN-γ, and Irf5−/− mice make sufficient levels to induce IgG2a CSR (Fig. 4A), the inability of Irf5−/− mice to produce IgG2a/c autoantibodies in the presence of IFN-γ provides further support for an intrinsic defect in IgG2a/c CSR.

2 (anti-IFN-γ) antibody were added to the same culture setting A

2 (anti-IFN-γ) antibody were added to the same culture setting. After 4 days the cells were washed and re-stimulated with 0·5 ng/ml phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and 1 μm ionomycin for 4 hr. Naive CD4 T cells were

stimulated under Th1 or Th2 polarizing conditions as described above. The Th1 or Th2 cells (1 × 106 to 2 × 106) were cross-linked with 1% formaldehyde and quenched with 0·125 m glycine. Cells were lysed with lysis buffer [50 mm Tris–HCl, pH 8·1, 1% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), 10 mm ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)], and sonicated at the high power NVP-BEZ235 cost setting for 15 min using a Bioruptor sonicator (Diagenode, Liege, Belgium). Using these conditions, the average DNA fragment size was approximately 500 base pairs. Cell extracts were pre-cleared with protein A–agarose/salmon sperm DNA (Millipore, Billerica, MA), and incubated with either anti-GATA-3 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA; sc-268), anti-MTA-2 (Santa Cruz, 28731), or rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG; Santa Cruz, sc-2027) click here as a negative control. Antibody-bound chromatin was precipitated by protein A–agarose, washed and eluted with elution buffer (0·1 m sodium bicarbonate, 1% SDS). The chromatin was reverse cross-linked by incubating at 65° for 4 hr,

followed by protease K treatment (100 ng/ml). The amount of precipitated DNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the primers listed in Table 1. The Prostatic acid phosphatase first-round ChIP was carried out as described above using the anti-GATA-3 antibody. The cross-linked DNA–protein complex was briefly washed, and eluted with 10 mm dithiothreitol (DTT) at 37° for 1 hr. The elute was then diluted 50-fold in a ChIP buffer (0·01% SDS, 1·1% TX-100, 1·2 mm EDTA, 16·7 mm Tris–HCl pH 8·1, 167 mm NaCl), and then a second-round ChIP was performed with anti-MTA-2 or the control IgG antibody. Chromatin was collected with protein A/G–agarose, washed, and eluted with sodium bicarbonate–SDS, and the cross-linked DNA

was reversed, which was followed by protease K treatment. Precipitated DNA was quantified by real-time PCR as described above. The Th2 cells were stimulated for 4 days as described above. The Th2 cell lysates were made in a lysis buffer, and then pre-cleared with control IgG followed by protein G treatment. Pre-cleared lysates were incubated overnight at 4° with monoclonal anti-GATA-3, polyclonal anti-MTA-2, anti-acetylated lysine (Santa Cruz, sc-32268) or normal IgG, and then protein G beads were added, followed by incubation for an additional 2 hr. Immunocomplexes were extensively washed and then were resuspended in an SDS loading buffer. Immunoblot analysis was performed as described below. Proteins were resolved by 10% SDS–PAGE and electrotransferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). The membrane was blocked with 5% skim milk Tris-buffered saline with Tween (TBST), and incubated 1 hr at room temperature.

What dosage though is required to correct deficiencies? Current g

What dosage though is required to correct deficiencies? Current guidelines suggest vitamin B6 supplementation of 10 mg/day. With recent advances in the haemodialysis process as outlined above however, is this level of supplementation likely to leave some patients with suboptimal levels? The literature generally recommends 10–50 mg/day. Is it possible that the upper end of this range

rather than the lower end is more suitable? These unanswered questions show that further control trials are required. They should include analysis of losses in the dialysate using different membrane technologies with consideration of the length of time patients see more are on dialysis. Collection of updated dietary data is also warranted. These data would assist in determining the optimal level of supplementation required to achieve favourable vitamin B6 status for today’s haemodialysis population. Appendix S1 Exact search strategy for selected databases. “
“Background:  Catalase is an intracellular antioxidant enzyme that is mainly located in cellular peroxisomes and in the cytosol. This LDK378 enzyme plays a significant role in the development of tolerance to oxidative stress in the adaptive response of cells and tissues. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the –262C/T

polymorphism in the catalase gene and delayed graft function (DGF), acute rejection and chronic allograft nephropathy of kidney allografts. Methods:  One hundred eighty-seven recipients of first renal transplants were included in the study. The histories of the patients were analysed regarding DGF, acute rejection and chronic allograft nephropathy. The polymorphism –262C/T in the catalase gene was analysed using the polymerase chain reaction – restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results:  The risk of DGF was significantly lower in

T allele carriers compared with CC homozygotes: odds ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval = 0.17–0.67, P = 0.001. There were no statistically significant associations between the studied polymorphism and acute rejection or chronic allograft nephropathy. Conclusion:  The results of this study suggest that –262C/T polymorphism in the catalase gene is associated with DGF in kidney allograft Protein kinase N1 recipients. “
“Aim:  While the best treatment of nephrosis-inducing idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is controversial, some trials have suggested positive outcomes following treatment with oral cyclophosphamide used in combination with steroids. However, data on i.v. cyclophosphamide plus steroids in treatment of nephrotic IMN are few. Methods:  The charts of every patient diagnosed with membranous nephropathy in the Renal Division of Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, from January 2003 to December 2009 (n = 189) were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with nephrotic IMN (n = 32) were treated with monthly i.v.

In human type 1 diabetes mellitus and Myasthenia gravis, a simila

In human type 1 diabetes mellitus and Myasthenia gravis, a similar scenario may exist where genetic polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of target Neratinib solubility dmso autoantigen genes INS2 and AChR, respectively, indirectly influences the thymic transcription of these TRA by AIRE 23, 24. Therefore, variations in the level of autoantigen displayed can set the threshold for self-tolerance and co-determine disease susceptibility. Our interest in autoimmunity focuses on the concept that the ectopic expression of target autoantigens can be used as a means of promoting immune tolerance. In particular, our strategy involves genetic manipulation

and transfer of BM cells to provide a source of ectopically expressing cells 25. This process has been shown in numerous find more studies to promote antigen specific tolerance 26–28. Using the MOG35–55 model of EAE, we have shown that the transplantation of BM cells transduced with a retrovirus encoding myelin oligonucleotide glycoprotein (Mog) can prevent the induction of EAE 29. One potential mechanism that underlies

this tolerogenic effect involves the deletion of autoreactive cells in the thymus 29. However, the effectiveness of this approach is potentially limiting given that autoimmune diseases are often associated with epitope spreading, resulting in multiple autoantigens being generated. Since AIRE is known to control the expression of many TRA, we asked whether ectopic expression of AIRE in BM derived cells can promote expression of known autoantigens and whether this can influence the development of EAE. Studies in which buy Gefitinib AIRE has been over-expressed in tissue culture cell lines have reported up- and down-regulation of a range of transcripts associated with diverse cellular functions such as adhesion, cell cycle, cytokine signaling, transcription factors, signal transduction and apoptosis, as well as a limited number of TRA 30–33. Transgenic mice, where AIRE is delimited within pancreatic islet beta cells, resulted in the expression of a large array

of transcripts not normally found in this tissue 34. However, to date, there are no studies to exploit the TRA promoting properties of AIRE in vivo and address whether ectopic expression of AIRE can influence the development of autoimmune disease. We examined the potential of AIRE to influence TRA expression in cultured cell lines by retroviral transduction with Aire. The cell lines included those derived from thymic epithelium (B6TEA and 427.1), dendritic cells (DC2.5), macrophages (J774 and RAW) and NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. To perform our studies, we generated retroviral vectors that encoded murine Aire (pAire) and as controls, Mog (pMog) or Ins2 (pProII). All constructs also contained a GFP cassette for identification of transduced cells or progeny (Fig. 1A). Cells were transduced with pAire and transduced cells identified by the expression of GFP. To confirm AIRE protein expression, transduced cells were stained with a monoclonal antibody specific to the AIRE protein 9.

[3] Since the inception of dialysis in the 1960s and with technol

[3] Since the inception of dialysis in the 1960s and with technological advances, more patients had access to dialysis. In the last decade there has been more of a focus on the burden of dialysis, QOL and survival benefit. This article aims to promote the use of QOL tools and QOL discussion with kidney disease patients throughout their disease trajectory to assist in informed decision-making regarding dialysis decisions and promote research within the renal community. Hospital haemodialysis

patients have reported worse QOL than patients treated with other renal replacement therapy (RRT), particularly transplantation.[1, 4] A number of factors have previously been identified to impact positively on QOL and include timely referral to a nephrologist,[5, beta-catenin mutation selleck products 6] exercise during dialysis[7-9] and optimizing renal anaemia.[10] QOL is also described in the literature as a predictor of mortality and hospitalizations.[11-14] Despite this knowledge, the assessment of QOL is not part of routine dialysis clinical practice in Australia

or New Zealand. Hamilton and Locking-Cusolito[15] found significant positive relationships between dialysis adequacy scores using Kt/V and social/emotional QOL variables using the Kidney Disease Questionnaire. McMahon et al.[10] found no change in physical variables with higher haemoglobins, but significant improvements in psychosocial variables with improved haemoglobins. Poorer physical and mental health scores, poor social support and psychosocial factors and self-reported depression

are all predictors of hospitalization and mortality rates,[11-14] of in addition poorer QOL scores are reported as a better predictor of mortality and hospitalization than serum albumin.[13] The physical dimensions of QOL are known to deteriorate with increasing age; however, studies by Garcia-Mendoza et al.[16] and Rebollo et al.[17] report less loss of QOL over time in the elderly patients compared with the younger patients. Elderly patients may readjust their life or health goals as their health declines. QOL is shown in studies to differ between dialysis modalities. The Broadening Options for Long-term Dialysis in the Elderly (BOLDE) study shows that although haemodialysis patients experience higher illness intrusion, elderly patients experience similar QOL whether on haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.[18] It should still be kept in mind that QOL of dialysis patients is still reported to be similar to that of patients living with a terminal malignancy.[19] Renal patients with a high symptom burden often have worse self-reported QOL.[20] Access to evidence-based literature regarding QOL on dialysis is important when presenting patients with the information they need to make a decision regarding RRT; although a QOL tool should not be used as a measure of whether someone should be accepted onto dialysis.

In vivo studies complemented with tissue-specific genetic ablatio

In vivo studies complemented with tissue-specific genetic ablation of either the receptor or key metabolic enzymes are required to gain further insight. A new wrinkle is added to these complex roles in this issue of the European Journal of Immunology by Lee et al. [25], who use RA pretreatment to assess the contribution

of retinoid signaling to immune-driven liver damage using two in vivo models of hepatitis. One model uses concanavalin A (Con A) to induce rapid T-cell, granulocyte, and Kupffer cell infiltration in the liver, leading to hepatocyte death and eventually the Ensartinib price death of the animal [26]. This model is believed to depend on NKT-cell CHIR-99021 concentration activity; NKT cells in this model produce large amounts of cytokines, such as IFN-γ, IL-4, and TNF-α, leading to hepatocyte damage [27, 28]. While animals injected with Con A all died after 6 h, mice pretreated with RA all survived for at least 24 h [24]. This remarkable difference is accompanied by reduced levels of IFN-γ and IL-4, but no change in TNF-α levels [24]. Using a pharmacological inhibitor of RA synthesis (Disulfiram), the authors also showed that the reduction of endogenous RA production could aggravate Con A-induced hepatitis. By excluding the participation of other cell types,

such as Kupffer cells and Treg cells, and also by excluding changes in the activation of NKT cells per se, they pinpointed the changes in cytokine production as the cause of the in vivo phenotype. Remarkably, in the other model of NKT cell driven hepatitis, RA pretreatment was ineffective. In this model, αGalCer, the ligand of CD1d, was administered to induce hepatic tissue damage [29]. However, this model depends on FasL

and TNF-α rather than IFN-γ, and while the RA-induced changes in cytokines were similar to those induced in the Con A model (i.e. reduced levels of IFN-γ and IL-4, but no change in TNF-α levels), this did not translate into a marked phenotype in α-GalCer-induced liver injury as these cytokines are not the phenotype drivers. As far as the mechanisms behind these finding are concerned, the authors propose that RA downregulates IFN-γ and IL-4 production by a MAPK-dependent mechanism, while the NFAT-dependent TNF-α induction would be unaltered, hence explaining the differential effect on cytokine production (Fig. 1). These new data are important as they strongly implicate RA and, critically, its endogenous production, in the control of NKT-cell cytokine production and, by doing so, provide new pharmacological targets for controlling hepatic inflammation in vivo. These findings also provide support for the concept that lipid signaling, metabolism, and diet are important in the immune regulation of T-cell subpopulations.