In addition, it is a speculated that the

“Gulf War Syndro

In addition, it is a speculated that the

“Gulf War Syndrome” might be caused by the systematic shift of T helper (Th) 2 cytokines by Th1 cytokines because the clinical symptoms are markedly similar to those of autoimmune diseases (Rook and Zumla, 1997). In vitro, after cluster of differentiation (CD) 4+ T cells and macrophages are exposed to DU, there is increased expression of IL-5 and IL-10, which strongly suggests a shift to Th2 cells during the initial stages of T cell differentiation ( Wan et al., 2006). For other heavy metals, such as lead, studies on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells also revealed a shift to Th2 cells during the immune response ( Gao et al., 2007). In this study, we hypothesised that DU may modulate immune cell cytokine expression, especially Th1 and Th2 cytokines, to influence the immune system function. Selleck Metformin However,

Dublineau et al. (2006) reported find more that, there was no biological consequences in the cytokine expression [IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, interferon (IFN)-γ, TNF-a] in Peyer’s patches and in mesenteric lymph nodes of rats after chronic ingestion of DU by drinking water (40 mg/l). Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish a mouse model in which mice were exposed to long-term ingestion of DU-containing feed, to evaluate Amisulpride the overall impact of DU exposure on the entire immune system of the mice after 4 months, and to verify whether the DU exposure caused an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines. We set up 4 different dose groups based on the DU concentration. The control group consumed normal feed with a uranium concentration of approximately 0 mg/kg. The uranium concentration that was used in the DU3 group (3 mg/kg) was mainly based on the average concentration of uranium in the natural soil (3 mg/kg; Bleise

et al., 2003). The uranium concentration that was used in the DU30 groups (30 mg/kg) was mainly based on the concentration range of uranium in the topsoil of the western Kosovo region (0.69–31.47 mg/kg; Di Lella et al., 2005) and on the uranium concentration (40 mg/l) that is the uranium concentration commonly used in drinking water in studies (Wade-Gueye et al., 2012 and Barillet et al., 2011) of chronic exposure [which was twice the highest environmental concentration in Finland (Juntunen, 1991)]. Finally, in accordance with the 10-fold uranium concentration gradient for each dose group, the DU300 groups were exposed to 300 mg/kg; this 300 mg/kg concentration was still far lower than that of the highest uranium concentration in the topsoil of the Kosovo region (assessed in November 2000), which was approximately 18,000 mg/kg (Sansone et al., 2001).

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