These CHIR-258 factors jointly make pharmaceutical development extremely costly, and consequently, pharmaceutical companies do what they can to recoup their outlays. In recent years, the Veliparib msds balance of power has shifted, and the market has become more difficult
for the pharmaceutical companies, due to, for example, expiring patents, attrition in the pipelines, and the fact that governments, insurance companies, and patients increasingly- dictate what kind of drugs they want, and how much they are willing to pay for them. This means that it is not just the drug makers who define the threshold Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of innovation, but also the health care demanders. In this situation, where the pharmaceutical industry has seen its value dwindle compared with the glory days of the 1990s, the contributions of molecular biology to drug discovery hold promise of increased profit for the pharmaceutical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical companies. Concerning the costbenefit ratio of pharmacogenomic drug development, there are profoundly different visions of the future. According to the optimistic vision, a better understanding
of how different diseases function both at a molecular level and as part of a biological system might enable Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the industry to define diseases far more precisely, and to develop drugs that are targeted towards specific disease types, rather than making one-size-fitsall drugs focusing on symptoms shared by a range of different diseases.47 Many new drugs will then be based on biology rather than chemistry because biologic entities
are typically more predictable and less toxic than chemical entities. In the aim to “get the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical right Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical drug into the right patient,”48 human research subjects will be genotyped in clinical trials to find out likely drug responses, a development also predicted importantly to reduce the time and cost of making new drugs. If that prediction is correct, then the cost of drug development might pose less of a problem in the case of targeted medication than in the case of one-size-fits-all drugs. Pharmacogenomic developments could thus lead to better health care without increasing the customer prices, and perhaps even reducing them. This can then be a win-win situation, where patients receive better health Drug_discovery care whilst industry boosts its revenues. Skeptics (amongst whom we also find some sectors of the pharmaceutical industry)49 recommend a more cautious view, arguing that the niche products that pharmacogenomics would produce risk segmenting the market, increasing the development costs, and reducing profits. The research, argue the skeptics, will take longer than predicted to produce clinical applications, and that the alleged cost-saving will therefore not be provided.