Application of ZnO nanostructure in the glucose biosensors just appeared in the last several years. Table 1 summarizes the state-of-the-art of ZnO utilization for kinase inhibitor Gemcitabine enzyme immobilization in electrochemical biosensor platforms and their analytical performances. Physical adsorption is the mostly used method for enzyme immobilization. ZnO nanocomb, prepared by vapor-phase Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries transport, was reported relatively early as a platform for glucose detection . During the manufacturing process for ZnO nanocombs [Figure 1(a)], the temperature was controlled at 900 ��C. A mixture of ZnO and graphite powders was used as reaction raw material sources, and argon and oxygen were used as carrier gas and reaction gas, respectively. For enzyme immobilization, GOD was physically adsorbed onto the nanocomb modified Au electrode and covered by Nafion solution.
The prepared biosensor had a diffusion-controlled electrochemical behavior Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and a fast response time, within 10 s. The value of KM (Michaelis-Menten constant) was reported to be 2.19 mM. Using a similar technique, Weber et al. obtained ZnO nanowires with a typical length of 0.5�C2 ��m and a diameter of 40�C120 nm [Figure 1(b)], which were grown from the substrate with an array of ZnO nanowires . For the enzyme immobilization, physical adsorption was also adopted to immobilize GOD onto the electrode. Such a prepared biosensor had a wider linear range from 0.1 to 10 mM, compared to those of others .Figure 1.
ZnO nanostructure materials with various shapes: (a) nanocombs made by vapor-phase-transport ; (b) nanowires obtained by vapor-liquid-solid Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries ; (c) nanowires made by thermal evaporation ; (d) nanonails made by thermal evaporation ; (e) nanorods …Table Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 1.ZnO-based electrochemical biosensors for glucose detection (GOD as enzyme) (GCE: glass carbon electrode; Gold/Ti/PET: Gold/Ti/poly (ethyleneterephthalate); ��/�� in the table means the corresponding content is not provided.)ZnO nanowires can also be obtained using thermal evaporation, in which ZnS powders are thermally evaporated under controlled conditions with Au thin film as a catalyst layer . GOD was immobilized onto ZnO nanowires [Figure 1(c)] via physical adsorption. KM and sensitivity could be modulated over a wide range depending on the amount of ZnO/GOD loading on the electrode .
Other Drug_discovery kinds Ceritinib CAS of ZnO nanostructures, such as ZnO nanonails synthesized by thermal evaporation [Figure 1(d)] , are also proposed as a platform for enzyme immobilization. For ZnO nanonails, Zn powder was used as the source of Zn in the reaction, and oxygen was introduced into the system. The protocol used was similar to that as described in . The constructed biosensor showed a high sensitivity of 24.6 ��A/cm2?mM. It also exhibited a diffusion-controlled electrochemical behavior with a linear calibration range from 0.1 to 7.1 mM.