All data were analysed using Dunnett’s test for significant diffe

All data were analysed using Dunnett’s test for significant differences between solvent control plates

and those treated with PM. The numbers of revertants per μg PM were calculated using data from the linear part of the dose–response curve. Subsequently, Tukey’s statistic was used to compare specific activities of the Dabrafenib PMs. This protocol complied with OECD guideline 471 ( OECD, 1997a) and ICH guidelines ( ICH-S2A, 1995 and ICH-S2B, 1997). The IVMNT was performed as described by McAdam et al. (2011). Briefly, duplicate V79 cell cultures in DMEM supplemented with 10% foetal calf serum, were pulsed with test or control samples for 3 h followed by a 17 h recovery, with and without S9, or for 20 h without S9. At least six dose levels for each PM were scored for cytotoxicity and for micronucleus formation in bi-nucleate cells, on duplicate slides. Differences between micronucleated binucleated cells (MnBn) at the different test concentrations and the solvent controls were subjected to paired t-tests. This method complied with OECD draft guideline 487 ( OECD, 2004). The MLA was performed as described by McAdam et al. (2011), using L5178Y thymidine kinase (tk) +/- cells cultured in Roswell Park Memorial medium (RPMI). There were two independent experiments using a 3 h exposure with S9; and two independent experiments used 3 and 24 h exposures without S9; Cyclopamine each with duplicate treatment cultures. Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease After

a two day expression period, cells were grown for eight days, and then trifluoro-thymidine (TFT) resistant colonies were counted. The method complied with OECD Guideline 476 (OECD, 1997b). PMs were compared in terms of the slopes of their responses. When PMs were tested at eight different concentrations in the Neutral Red assay, in four different experiments, each PM showed a concentration-related decrease in percent viability, which enabled IC50 values to be calculated. The IC50 values obtained for the different PMs in all four experiments are given in Table

2. It is clear that, for all of the PMs, when tested in the same experiment at equivalent concentrations corrected for nicotine-free dry particulate matter (NFDPM), the IC50 values were very similar. It is noticeable that there was variation in relative cytotoxicities between different experiments. Also, in several instances, the difference observed between IC50 values for the same extract across four experiments was greater than the differences between the IC50 values for the different extracts in the same experiment. When the mean IC50 concentrations (from the four experiments) for each PM were analysed by one-way ANOVA, there were no statistically significant differences (p = 0.960). The IC50s of the PMs from cigarettes with BT tobacco (W862–W864) were not different from those of PMs from cigarettes without BT tobacco (W860–W861). The inclusion of BT tobacco in W862 did not change the IC50, compared to its control (W861).

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