Therefore, in contrast to tolterodine, no reduction of fesoterodi

Therefore, in contrast to tolterodine, no reduction of fesoterodine dosage is required under conditions of reduced elimination. In most cases of drug interaction or renal/hepatic impairment, the fesoterodine dose may be increased to 8 mg/day based on individual patients’ response, or patients may be required to remain at the initial recommended dose of 4 mg/day.”
“Intramammary infections (IMI) during the Smoothened Agonist clinical trial dry period can be reduced through the use of dry cow therapy (DCT); in the future, its blanket use is likely to be questioned in the light of public concern regarding the

routine use of antibiotics in food producing animals. One possible alternative is to limit DCT to cows with IMI just before drying off, which would require a quick, simple identification of sub-clinical IMI. In the present

study we examined quarter milk samples obtained from 240 cows one week before and on the day of drying off, using the California mastitis test (CMT) and for IMI by bacteriological culture. The results indicated that high CMT scores at drying off may be good indicators of IMI: there was a significant association between the frequency of isolation phosphatase inhibitor of major pathogens and the CMT score in milk samples obtained one week before (Pearson’s chi(2) = 27.04, df = 4, p < 0.001) and those at drying

off (Pearson’s chi(2) = 25.87, df = 4, p < 0.001). (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this study was to determine the effects of rice bran oil (RBO) on lipid metabolism and insulin resistance in rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Rats were divided into two groups: the control group (15% soybean oil, contains 0 g gamma-oryzanol and 0 g gamma-tocotrienot/150 g oil for 5 weeks) Bromosporine Epigenetics inhibitor and the RBO group (15% RBO, contains 5.25 g gamma-oryzanol and 0.9 g gamma-tocotrienol/150 g oil for 5 weeks). Compared with the control group, the R-130 group had a lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration, ratio of total to high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, hepatic cholesterol concentration, and area under the curve for insulin. The RBO group had a higher high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and greater excretion of fecal neutral sterols and bile acid than did the control group. RBO may improve lipid abnormalities, reduce the atherogenic index, and suppress the hyperinsulinemic response in rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced T2DM. In addition, RBO can lead to increased fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion.

The physical and mechanical properties of UHMWPE were influenced

The physical and mechanical properties of UHMWPE were influenced as a result of c and electron-beam irradiation and the remelting procedure. Lower crystallinity, different lamellar thickness distributions, and lower hardness check details and modulus values were estimated. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 1875-1884, 2011″
“Background: Idiopathic duct centric pancreatitis (IDCP) is a subtype of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) that is histologically characterized by granulocytic epithelial lesion and scarce IgG4-positive cells. This subtype

of AIP has not been documented in Asian countries. Methods: We reviewed 38 histologically confirmed AIP cases and classified them into lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP) and IDCP. Then, clinicopathological characteristics were

compared between LPSP and IDCP. Results: Fourteen cases (36.8%) were IDCP. IDCP affected younger patients more than LPSP. IDCP was associated with ulcerative colitis in 35.7% of cases, whereas LPSP was associated with IgG4-related sclerosing diseases such as cholangitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis or sialadenitis in 41.7% of cases. IDCP was microscopically characterized by neutrophilic ductoacinitis with occasional granulocytic epithelial lesions, whereas LPSP was characterized by storiform inflammatory cell-rich fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis. IgG4-positive cells were not detected in any IDCP case but more than 20 IgG4-positive Barasertib research buy cells per high-power-field were invariably

detected in LPSP cases. All patients with IDCP responded dramatically to steroids without recurrence, whereas 33.3% of patients with LPSP developed recurrences. Conclusions: IDCP is clinicopathologically distinct from LPSP and can be diagnosed when neutrophilic ductoacinitis or granulocytic epithelial lesions are observed in a pancreatic biopsy under the appropriate clinical setting.”
“The failure process of inorganic zinc-rich/micaceous iron oxide epoxy/aliphatic polyurethane composite coating in 3.5% NaCl solution under ultraviolet irradiation (UV) was studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. UV irradiation significantly accelerated failure process of the composite coating in NaCl solution. The effect of ABT 263 UV on failure process of the coating system in 3.5% NaCl solution may be divided into two stages: in the early stage, the thermal effect generated by the ultraviolet irradiation is the main reason leading to the increase in coating porosity, but this effect is not serious and the coating remains high impedance and good protection ability. In the latter stage, the fracture of polymer chains in the top coating by UV irradiation is the main factor resulting in quick decrease of coating performance. CAN and CAO bonds in polyurethane coating are broken by UV irradiation, leading to quick increase of the coating porosity and decrease of the coating resistance. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Cognitive debriefing and psychometric analyses demonstrated good

Cognitive debriefing and psychometric analyses demonstrated good internal validity and patient acceptability. The QOL-EA (c) is the first HRQoL instrument developed specifically for MDS patients.”
“Purpose: To investigate the chemical composition and toxicity of the essential oil of Glycosmis parviflora (Sims) Little aerial parts against root-knot nematode and two grain

storage insects (maize weevil and red flour beetle).

Methods: Steam distillation of G. parviflora was carried out using Clavenger apparatus in order to extract its volatile selleck chemicals llc oil. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analysis (HP-5MS column) of the essential oil was performed and the toxicity of the oil determined by contact test.

Results: A total of 37 components comprising 98.7 % of the essential oil were identified, of which (Z)-caryophyllene (20.6 %), methyl isoeugenol (11.1 %), (Z)-beta-ocimene (8.9 %), alpha-cubebene (6.4 %), nerolidol (5.4 %), aromandendrene (4.9 %) and gamma-pyronene (4.7 %) were found to be the major components. The essential oil possessed strong nematicidal

activity against M. incognita GANT61 in vivo with an LC50 value of 92.84 mu g/ml. The essential oil of G. parviflora exhibited strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LD50 values of 41.7 and 22.6 mu g/adult, respectively.

Conclusion: The study indicates that the essential oil of G. parviflora aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/nematicide for control of nematodes and grain storage insects.”
“SETTING: joint World Health Organization (WHO) projects in Vladimir and Orel regions, Russia.

OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB).

METHODS: Drug susceptibility testing of second-line drugs (ofloxacin, kanamycin, capreomycin, ethionamide, cycloserine and para-aminosalicylic acid) was performed on isolates from multidrug-resistant Nutlin-3 TB cases from I January to 31 December 2006.


16 (21.3%) of 75 tested isolates were XDR-TB; in Vladimir, 9 (4.9%) of 182 isolates were XDR-TB. Bilateral lung involvement was significantly associated with XDR-TB (prevalence ratio = 2.61, 95%CI 1.01-6.72).

CONCLUSION: XDR-TB has emerged in Russia. It Is crucial to prevent, diagnose and treat TB and MDR-TB more effectively.”
“Nocardia elegans infection in humans is rare and is predominantly associated with pulmonary infections. We describe the first case of N. elegans infection associated with purulent arthritis in humans. The patient was a 66-year-old woman without underlying disease. She had swelling in her left ankle that was increasing in size, but it did not cause the patient substantial pain.

Methods: Case definitions of severe malaria were developed from a

Methods: Case definitions of severe malaria were developed from a literature review and a consensus meeting of expert consultants and the RTS, S Clinical Trial Partnership Committee, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Malaria Clinical Trials Alliance. The same groups, with input from an Independent Data Monitoring Committee, developed and implemented a programme for standardized data collection. The case definitions developed reflect the typical GPCR Compound Library presentations of

severe malaria in African hospitals. Markers of disease severity were chosen on the basis of their association with poor outcome, occurrence in a significant proportion of cases and on an ability to standardize their measurement across research centres. For the primary case definition, one or more clinical and/or laboratory markers of disease severity have to be present, four major co-morbidities

(pneumonia, meningitis, bacteraemia or gastroenteritis with severe dehydration) are excluded, and a Plasmodium falciparum parasite density threshold is introduced, in order to maximize the specificity of the case definition. Secondary case definitions allow inclusion of co-morbidities and/or allow for the presence of parasitaemia at any density. The programmatic implementation of standardized case assessment included a clinical algorithm for evaluating seriously sick children, improvements to care delivery and a robust training and evaluation programme for clinicians.

Conclusions: The case definition developed for the pivotal phase III CYT387 order RTS, S vaccine study is consistent with WHO recommendations, is locally applicable and appropriately balances sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of severe malaria. Processes set up to standardize severe malaria data collection will allow robust assessment of the efficacy of the RTS, S vaccine SNX-5422 against severe malaria, strengthen local capacity and benefit patient care for subjects in the trial.”
“Polymer-Au nanocomposite films were prepared by co-sputtering from two independent magnetron sources. By sputtering from gold and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

magnetrons, we prepared homogenous composite films using a rotatable sample holder. The microstructure of the nanocomposites was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The resistivity drops from 107 to 10-3 Ohm cm over a narrow range of metal content. The thin composite films show a strong optical absorption in the visible region due to surface plasmon resonances. The optical absorption has a strong dependence on the metal content, showing a red shift of the absorption peak from 550 nm to more than 700 nm with increasing gold content. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: Sarcopenia seems to be attributed to a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to food intake and exercise.

(Obstet Gynecol 2012; 120: 1140-48) DOI: http://10 1097/AOG 0b013

(Obstet Gynecol 2012; 120: 1140-48) DOI: http://10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182707341″
“The process of association-dissociation

of hemoglobin molecules into dimers of its subunits in water and water-saline solutions is studied by the method of gel-penetrating chromatography and ultrafiltration. The quantitative assessment of stabilization of quaternary structure of hemoglobin in chemically bound polymer derivative in comparison with native peptide on the basis of building differential concentration curves is conducted for the first time. By the method of atomic-force spectroscopy, the morphology of nanoparticles AZD6244 molecular weight of hemoglobin and its modified polymeric derivative is studied.”
“Progress in patient

safety has been exceedingly slow, hampered by lack of both clarity regarding the definition and standard methodology to assess iatrogenic patient harm in obstetrics and gynecology. Understanding the causes of medical error and strategies to reduce harm is simple compared with the complexity of clinical practice. On the other hand, patient safety interventions will not be successful without a receptive culture of ICG-001 inhibitor safety. This culture can only occur with engaged organizational and individual leaders who understand the importance of patient safety. Transforming groups of individual experts into expert teams is central to this cultural transformation. Strategic pathways to accelerate future improvement in patient safety include fundamental changes in health care education, patient engagement, transparency, care coordination, and improving health care providers’ morale. (Obstet Gynecol 2012; 120: 1149-59) DOI: http://10.1097/AOG.0b013e31826feaa0″
“Hybrid HDAC inhibitor protein, cancer necrosis factor thymosin-alpha

1 (TNF-T), when synthesizing in strain-producer of Escherichia coli SG200-50 with plasmid pThy315, was a part of “”inclusion bodies”" mostly in the form of a high-molecular complex with other proteins due to the S-S bonds formation. An approach of purification of TNF-T has been proposed, which is based on the destruction of the complex in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate (DDS-Na) and dithiotreitol (DDT) followed by gel-filtration on Sephadex G-100 and renaturation by ultrafiltration on hollow fibers. The method allows the isolation of electrophoretically homogeneous TNF-T containing no DDS-Na and having high cytotoxic activity against cancer cells of mouse adenocarcinome L-929. The yield of TNF-T achieved 80% relative its content in biomass and 30% relative the total protein.”
“The thermostable DNA polymerases have been used for amplification of DNA fragments since the invention of PCR. The constraint on the maximum size of the amplified fragments can be solved to certain level by the use of unbalanced mixtures of non-proofreading and proofreading thermostable DNA polymerases.

The rho-T relation is simulated using TSUPREM-4 and calibrated us

The rho-T relation is simulated using TSUPREM-4 and calibrated using a furnace of known temperature. The final sheet resistance varies spatially between 50 and 250 Omega/sq, and can be related to the temperature of each part of the wafer during the soak step, with a sensitivity of similar to 0.5 Omega/degrees C, and a two-dimensional

temperature map can be extracted. The method is demonstrated on wafers by characterizing the hot zone of a high-temperature furnace. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3544347]“
“The objective of U0126 cell line this study is to assess the reliability of clinical examination in patients with erosive osteoarthritis (EOA). Eighteen patients with EOA underwent clinical examination for joint tenderness, bony swelling, and inflammation by two independent, blinded assessors. All patients were also examined by ultrasound (US) by an independent radiologist. The inter-observer agreement was moderate for bony swelling and joint tenderness and fair for joint inflammation (kappa = 0.513, 0.448, and 0.402, respectively). US detected

significantly more inflamed joints than clinical examination. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination for joint inflammation were 0.12 and 0.95, respectively. Clinical joint counts for bony swelling, tenderness, and inflammation all correlated with functional status, assessed by the functional index for hand osteoarthritis (FIHOA), whereas US joint counts for joint inflammation did not FG-4592 correlate with the FIHOA. No correlation was found between any clinical or US joint count and visual analog AS1842856 in vivo scale for pain. US detects more joints with inflammation than clinical examination in patients with EOA. US can supplement the clinical examination of patients with EOA, as US-detected subclinical joint inflammation might accelerate joint damage and thus functional impairment.”
“The kinetics of thermal degradation of standard and commercial polyethylene (PE) samples is investigated, by employing

different methods like Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coats-Redfern, Kissinger, and Augis-Bennett. The order of reaction obtained was 0.741 and 1.124 for standard and commercial samples, respectively. The activation energy obtained in this way was 279.6-311.0 kJ/mol and 300.5-374.1 kJ/mol for standard and commercial samples, respectively, depending upon the method used. The activation energy obtained by different methods decreases in the order Flynn-Wall-Ozawa”" Augis and Bennett”" Kissinger”" Coats and Redfern. It is observed that most of the methods deviated from the experimental results, in low (0.1-0.3) degree of conversion region but worked well in the middle (0.5-0.7) degree of conversion region. It has also been noticed that both the order and activation energy were slightly dependent over the heating rate and degree of conversion. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

We evaluated QT dispersion (QTd), which reflects regional differe

We evaluated QT dispersion (QTd), which reflects regional differences in ventricular repolarization, in HCM patient and controls among

the three different ACE genotypes.

Materials and methods: Sixty-three patients with HCM and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study. QT parameters were measured from 12 lead electrocardiograms. ACE genotypes were determined from the DNA extracted from peripheral blood by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. QT parameters were compared among the three ACE genotypes both in HCM patients and controls.

Results: Median ages were similar in HCM and control groups. QTd and corrected QTd (QTcd) were significantly greater in the HCM group compared with the controls. The frequencies of each genotype Ganetespib were similar in both groups. Although QTd and QTcd did not differ among the three genotypes in the control subjects, they were significantly greater in patients selleck screening library with DD genotype compared with other genotypes in the HCM group.

Conclusion: QTd and QTcd are increased in patients with HCM, especially in those with the DD genotype.”
“Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to full term neonates born to mothers with intrapartum fever. Methods: In a retrospective study, neonates born to mothers with intrapartum fever, (>= 37.8 degrees C), were compared to control group matched by

gestational age and birthweight. Results: Overall, 159 singleton full term Danusertib price neonates born to women with intrapartum

fever (study group) were compared to 159 control infants. No differences in neonatal outcomes were found between the two groups except for a higher rate of meconium-stained amniotic fluid in the maternal-fever group. There were no cases of neonatal infection, severe neonatal morbidity, or neonatal mortality in either of the groups. Full sepsis workup and intravenous antibiotic treatment were provided to 17.6% of the neonates in the study group. Logistic regression analysis revealed that delivery by Cesarean section was the only factor independently associated with the decision to perform a full sepsis work up and antibiotic treatment in cases of maternal intrapartum fever (OR 32.0, 95% CI 9.4-112.1). Conclusions: In low-risk women with asymptomatic intrapartum fever, neonatal infection is uncommon, so that aggressive evaluation and management of these infants may not be necessary and should be balanced against the low risk of neonatal sepsis.”
“Hypothesis. Aldosterone has direct or indirect effects on atherosclerosis, and polymorphisms occur in the gene encoding aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), the enzyme catalysing aldosterone biosynthesis. Genetic variations in aldosterone synthesis may influence progression of carotid atherosclerosis.

Materials and methods.

Forty-six percent (30/65) of cats had abdominal neoplasia, and 54

Forty-six percent (30/65) of cats had abdominal neoplasia, and 54% (35/65) had nonneoplastic conditions. Hemangiosarcoma was the most often diagnosed neoplasm (18/30; 60%), and the spleen was the most common location for neoplasia (11/30; 37%). Eight cats survived to be discharged from the hospital. Cats with neoplasia were significantly older and had significantly lower PCVs than cats with nonneoplastic disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Spontaneous hemoperitoneum in cats often results in debilitating clinical PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor consequences. In contrast to dogs with hemoperitoneum, the cause of hemoperitoneum in cats

is approximately evenly distributed between neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases. Although only a few cats were treated in this study, the prognosis appears poor. (J Am Vet Med Assoc Savolitinib 2010;236:978-982)”
“Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation

of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub NVP-BSK805 clinical trial with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 mu g/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the ‘smoke-free’ areas (1.42-3.01 mu g/m(3)). Smoking areas

in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 mu g/m(3)) and ‘smoke-free’ area (7.68 mu g/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective To describe the health status of foals derived by use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) at a university laboratory.

Design Retrospective case series.

Animals-14 live-born NT-derived foals.

2 kg Thus, every kilo reduction in body weight was related to mo

2 kg. Thus, every kilo reduction in body weight was related to more than twice the reduction in peak knee force at a given walking speed.

Conclusion: Weight loss is an excellent short-term investment Selleckchem MK2206 in terms of joint loading for patients with combined obesity and knee OA. The effects of sustained weight loss on disease

progression and symptoms in relation to biomechanical factors remain to be shown. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Osteoarthritis Research Society International.”
“Objective: Many clinicians and decision makers want to know the combined effects of treatments that have not been evaluated in combination. It is possible to determine such treatment effects by making assumptions about the additive effects. We discuss here the prerequisites and methods of applying additivity assumptions in synthesizing this website the evidence from randomized trials and multiple treatment meta-analyses.

Study Design and Setting: Using statistical approaches, we demonstrate the utility of additivity of both pairwise randomized trials and multiple treatment

comparison meta-analyses.

Results: We present illustratively an example on estimating the treatment effects of drug combinations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We confirm the additive treatment effects by comparing with direct combination treatment trial results.

Conclusion: Additive effects may be a useful tool to estimate the effectiveness of treatment combinations. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of review

To discuss the recommendations pertaining to infants, children, and adolescents in new and updated

tuberculosis (TB) guidelines that have been published since 2010 – PXD101 nmr with emphasis on those from supranational organizations.

Recent findings

The main developments in the guidelines covered in this article are related to: novel diagnostics for TB infection, disease, and drug resistance; updated treatment regimens for childhood and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB); and primary and secondary prevention of TB disease in HIV-infected children and adolescents.


These new guidelines have significant implications for improving pediatric TB care. Regarding diagnosis, current interferon-gamma release assays should not replace tuberculin skin testing, but may be complementary; a polymerase chain reaction assay has been validated for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in microscopy-negative samples, especially in HIV-infected and DR-TB suspects; and a molecular line probe assay has been validated for detecting DR-TB in microscopy-positive samples and culture isolates in DR-TB suspects. With respect to treatment, there have been certain changes in the recent World Health Organization recommendations for certain clinical syndromes, for multidrug-resistant TB disease, and for HIV/TB disease.

Growing evidence indicates that increased responsiveness

Growing evidence indicates that increased responsiveness

of innate immune cells such as macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils drives inflammation in SpA. The altered innate immune response may be related to nonantigen-presenting functions of HLA-B27, including the induction of an unfolded protein response, and can be Adavosertib solubility dmso triggered by bacterial and mechanical stress. Innate immune cells appear to be the main producers of both pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor, IL-1, IL-23, IL-17) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in SpA.


The predominance of myeloid above lymphoid alterations suggests an autoinflammatory rather than autoimmune origin of inflammation in SpA. Therefore, targeting innate cells or their inflammatory mediators may be more effective than T-cell or B-cell-directed therapies.”
“Purpose of review

There is a major Combretastatin A4 order delay of several years between first symptoms and making a diagnosis in patients with axial

spondyloarthritis. A strategy for earlier diagnosis is urgently needed, for which efficient referral parameters applicable in primary care are an important part. Published studies on referral programs are reviewed and their relevance for daily clinical practice is discussed.


Several referral investigations have been performed in several countries using the symptom of ‘inflammatory back pain’ (IBP) alone or in combination with other referral parameters. All studies performed resulted in a good and acceptable percentage of an axial SpA diagnosis in between 29 and 58%. A set of rather simple parameters (IBP and/or HLA-B27 positivity and/or sacroiliitis on imaging) Navitoclax purchase performed better than IBP alone and is easier to use than more complicated referral strategies.


Referral strategies to screen for axial SpA patients in primary care are available, are effective and should be applied more regularly.”
“AimPre-eclampsia (PE) is a complex

disorder of pregnancy with unknown etiology. FAS-mediated apoptosis is assumed to prevent the development of PE; therefore FAS and FASLigand may be represented as candidate genes involved in PE pathogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the relation between FAS LigandA-670G (rs1800682) and FAS LigandC-844T (rs763110) gene polymorphisms with PE in southeast Iran.

MethodsOne hundred and twenty-seven unrelated women with PE and 139 healthy control subjects were genotyped for the FASA-670G and FAS LigandC-844T polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method.

ResultsThe AA, AG and GG genotype frequency of the FASA-670G polymorphism were 21.3%, 53.5% and 25.2% in pre-eclamptic women and 46.0%, 41.5% and 11.5% in controls and were statistically different (P=0.0001). The risk of PE was 2.7- and 4.7-fold higher in pregnant women with AG and GG genotypes respectively.