Following vaccination with rgp120, ADCVI antibody levels are high

Following vaccination with rgp120, ADCVI antibody levels are higher among

Selleckchem GSK2399872A those with a lower rate of sexually acquired HIV infection. Nonneutralizing simian immunodeficiency virus immune serum that prevents infection of newborn macaques after oral challenge has potent ADCVI antibody activity. Abrogating the ability of the Fc segment of the broadly neutralizing mAb b12 to bind to Fc gamma receptors and to mediate ADCVI substantially reduces b12′s protective effect in a simian/human immunodeficiency virus vaginal challenge model.\n\nSummary\n\nFc-Fc gamma R interactions play a critical role in the biological function of antibody and are likely to be instrumental in preventing or modulating lentiviral infection. Exploiting antibody responses that depend on Fc-Fc gamma R interactions may help widen the breadth and increase

the potency of vaccine-induced antibody. Although the importance of generating optimal Fab-antigen interactions cannot be overestimated, improving Fc-Fc gamma R interactions through adjuvants or other strategies provides another option for improving HIV vaccines and immunotherapies.”
“The photochemical behavior of benzo[a]pyrido[2',1':2,3]imidazo[4,5-c]phenazine dyes was studied in the presence of diphenyliodonium and triarylsulfonium salts that are used in photoredox systems for light-induced cationic PCI-34051 ic50 polymerization. The fluorescence quenching of these dyes were examined in the presence of the onium salts. Photolysis of the dyes was measured in the presence of onium salts in

cyclohexene oxide. The quantum yields of dye bleaching under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were calculated. A mechanism was Pexidartinib ic50 proposed for this process based on density functional theory calculations and spectroscopic characterization of both the radical cation of benzo[a]pyrido[2',1':2,3]imidazo[4,5-c]phenazine dyes and the cation formed after hydrogen abstraction by the radical cation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In 2008 and 2009 seasons, a sudden increase in Potato virus Y (PVY) incidence was recorded in foundation seed potatoes in Hokkaido, northern Japan. This increase was obvious during the field inspection and the postharvest indexing. Molecular typing revealed that besides the previously reported strains of PVYO and PVYNA-N, the most common strain identified was the recombinant PVYNTN, with three characteristic recombinant junctions at the HC-Pro, VPg and CP regions. No potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) was observed in foundation seed potatoes in correlation with the presence of PVYNTN.

P4 exerts its actions through various mechanisms classified as cl

P4 exerts its actions through various mechanisms classified as classical VX-770 datasheet and non-classical. PR has dual functions as a nuclear transcription factor and as a modulator of cell signaling pathways. Many PR target genes do not contain canonical progesterone response elements (PRE) in their promoter regions and may thus be regulated by PR tethering to other transcription factors and/or rapid signaling, independent of direct PR DNA binding. We review the mechanisms involved in P4 effects on genes implicated in control of cell cycle, proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis, such as cyclin D1 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) whose promoters lack PRE sequences, and vascular endothelial

growth factor (VEGF) which gene contains PRE in its promoter region. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of cyclin D1, EGFR and VEGF expression by P4 will be helpful for the development of new cancer therapies.”
“This is the first this website report on the characterization and production optimization of poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) in Staphylococcus saprophyticus A strain producing glucosamine exopolysaccharide was isolated and characterized by biochemical test and 16S rRNA gene sequence homology analysis and named as S saprophyticus BMSZ711 The molecular

mass of the purified exopolymer was about 12 kDa. Digestion of the PNAG with Dispersin (R) proved that it has beta-1.6 linkage BMSZ711 can only produce PNAG when grown in M1 Gamma-secretase inhibitor minimal medium but not in nutrient rich medium with optimum temperature of 30 degrees C and pH of 7 Glycerol and ammonium sulfate were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen source, respectively Maximum PNAG production was

obtained when glycerol 100 mM, ammonium sulfate 0.3%, yeast extract 1.5 g/L, sodium chloride 10 g/L and valine 2 mM were used. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved”
“Background: The objective of this study was to position the iliosacral screws speedily, easily, and safely, we sought to delineate readily reproducible radiographic anatomic clues of the pedicel of S1 for the iliosacral screw placement.\n\nMethods: We used eight normal adult pelvic specimens lying on the operation table in the prone position. First, the C-arm fluoroscope unit is positioned for the lateral view of the body of S1. We gradually changed the angle of the C-arm to ventral and cephalad. When a clear oval track image appears, we fix the angle of the C-arm. With the assistance of the C-arm projection, the starting point for the guide pin is centered on the oval track, and the orientation is adjusted. When the projection of the guide pin became a point inside of the oval track, the guide pin is inserted using battery-powered equipment. The accuracy and angle of pin placement is assessed using computed tomography scans in all cases.

In the olfactometer bioassay, H hampei showed a significant resp

In the olfactometer bioassay, H. hampei showed a significant response to 3-ethyl-4-methylpentanol, methylcyclohexane,

nonane, ethylbenzene, and a synthetic blend of these four compounds. SB273005 in vitro Attraction to the synthetic blend was comparable to that for the natural sample. The significance of the study is discussed in terms of semiochemical based pest management methods of the coffee berry borer.”
“Background: The number of bariatric procedures has continued to increase worldwide. However, experience with tumors arising in the esophagus or stomach after gastric bypass is lacking. We report our technique for curative resection of esophageal adenocarcinoma in a patient who had undergone previous gastric bypass

and review the reported data on esophagogastric tumors after bariatric surgery.\n\nMethods: We have described the operative details of esophagectomy after gastric bypass and reviewed the published data regarding type of bariatric surgery, gender predilection, presentation, symptom duration, cancer stage, and prognosis of patients with esophagogastric tumors occurring after bariatric surgery.\n\nResults: Only 22 esophagogastric selleck chemicals tumors have been reported so far after bariatric surgery. The majority of them are locally advanced or metastatic at presentation.\n\nConclusion: Esophagogastric tumors after bariatric surgery are uncommon. This operative technique pays particular attention to the altered anatomy, dissection of the gastric

pouch, and preservation of the blood supply to the excluded stomach. This technique can also be applied to manage tumors arising in the gastric pouch after previous gastric bypass. Close collaboration with the bariatric surgeon during surgery is essential to achieve a successful oncologic outcome in this subset of patients. (Surg Obes Relat Dis 2009;5:576-581.) (C) 2009 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.”
“The olive snail (Neritina reclivata) is ubiquitous in tropical and sub-tropical systems of the Gulf of Mexico, however its impacts on sediment microalgae have been little studied. Many coastal systems around the world are being eutrophied due to human activities, and seemingly they will continue learn more to be eutrophied to a further extent in the future. Exploring the single and combined impacts of further nutrient enrichment and grazing by the olive snail on sediment microalgae in such eutrophic systems is an important question for our understanding and management of these systems. Here we examine the effects of short-term nutrient enrichment and grazing by the olive snail N. reclivata on sediment microalgal biomass and composition in a shallow eutrophic estuary (Weeks Bay, Alabama, USA) of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

(C) 2011 AEC Published by Elsevier Espana, S L All rights rese

(C) 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana, S. L. All rights reserved.”
“We PLX4032 ic50 have developed and characterized 21 microsatellite markers in the aphidophagous gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). All 21 loci tested were polymorphic: the number of alleles ranged from 2 to 17. Allelic richness and observed heterozygosities were higher in females than in males. Several loci had no heterozygosity in males, suggesting that the loci were located on sex chromosomes or E-chromosomes, common to cecidomyiids. The high polymorphism detected in this study suggests the markers will

be of value in analyzing genetic structure of field populations.”
“Mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) in adults represents nearly 2 to 5 % of all acute leukemia cases. There are two large studies throughout the world and only case reports and small series have been reported in Latin America. This study retrospectively analyses

Vorinostat the clinical characteristics and survival of 27 patients with MPAL evaluated in three medical institutions of Mexico. All cases meet World Health Organization 2008 criteria; 70.3 % of patients had B lymphoid/myeloid lineage MPAL. Induction chemotherapy protocols included 7 + 3 hyper-CVAD, high-density schedules, and pediatric-like regimens such as New York II and total XI. Complete remission was achieved in 23/27 patients (85.2 %). Only one patient died due to chemotherapy-induced aplasia during remission induction (5.2 %). In 68 % of cases, we were able to administer maintenance

therapy as a regimen in lymphoblastic leukemia. At the time of analysis, 70.4 % of the patients in the entire cohort had died mainly as result of disease progression (73.6 %). Disease-free survival was 13 months (95 % CI, 9.6-16.3 months) and overall survival was 14.8 months (95 % CI 13.4-16.27). Survival rates Buparlisib are low and standardized therapy for the management of this type of leukemia is still lacking. This is the largest series reported in Mexico and to the best of our knowledge in Latin America.”
“OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the serological status of dogs living in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area and its correlation with the parasitological condition of the animals. METHODS: Canine humoral response was evaluated using the sera of 134 dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry to detect parasites in the skin, lymph node, and spleen of the animals. The specific antibodies investigated were IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgE. RESULTS: According to the parasitological, laboratory, and clinical findings, the dogs were placed into one of four groups: asymptomatic with (AP+, n = 21) or without (AP-, n = 36) Leishmania tissue parasitism and symptomatic with (SP+, n = 52) or without (SP-, n = 25) parasitism. Higher IgG and IgE levels were positively correlated with the infection condition and parasite load, but not with the clinical status.

Copyright (C) 2010 S Karger AG, Basel”
“The N-terminal 17 a

Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The N-terminal 17 amino acids of huntingtin (NT17) can be phosphorylated on serines 13 and 16; however, the significance of these modifications in Huntington’s disease pathogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we developed BAC transgenic mice expressing full-length mutant huntingtin (fl-mhtt) with serines 13 and 16 mutated to either aspartate (phosphomimetic or SID) or alanine (phosphoresistant or SA). Both mutant proteins preserve the essential function of

huntingtin in rescuing knockout mouse phenotypes. However, fl-mhtt-induced disease pathogenesis, including motor and psych iatric-like behavioral deficits, mhtt aggregation, and selective neurodegeneration are abolished in SD but preserved in SA mice. Moreover, modification of these serines in expanded repeat huntingtin peptides modulates aggregation and amyloid fibril formation in vitro. Together,

our findings demonstrate that serines 13 and 16 are critical determinants of fl-mhtt-induced disease pathogenesis learn more in vivo, supporting the targeting of huntingtin NT17 domain and its modifications in HD therapy.”
“Physical tradeoffs may in some cases constrain the evolution of sensory systems. The peripheral auditory system, for example, performs a spectral decomposition of sound that should result in a tradeoff between frequency resolution and temporal resolution. We assessed temporal resolution in three songbird species using auditory brainstem responses to paired click stimuli. Temporal resolution was greater in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) than Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis) and white-breasted nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis), as predicted NSC 66389 based on previous observations

of broader auditory filters (lower frequency resolution) in house sparrows. Furthermore, within chickadees, individuals with broader auditory filters had greater temporal resolution. In contrast to predictions however, temporal resolution was similar between chickadees and nuthatches despite broader auditory filters in chickadees. These results and the results of a model simulation exploring the effect of broadened auditory filter bandwidth on temporal resolution in the auditory periphery strongly suggest that frequency resolution constrains temporal resolution in songbirds. Furthermore, our results suggest that songbirds have greater temporal resolution than some mammals, in agreement with recent behavioral studies. Species differences in temporal resolution may reflect adaptations for efficient processing of species-specific vocalizations, while individual differences within species may reflect experience-based developmental plasticity or hormonal effects.”
“A hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (HILIC-MS/MS) method was developed for the direct determination of naloxone-3-glucuronide (N3G) in human plasma and urine.

A total of 33 patients underwent MRI and PET-CT at pretreatment a

A total of 33 patients underwent MRI and PET-CT at pretreatment and at 8 weeks after CRT. We assessed the treatment outcome by analyzing the following parameters: the

RECIST criteria, Delta LR, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria, and pretreatment SUVmax of the primary tumor and node. The correlation between the analysis of the parameters and the results of the long-term follow-up of the patients was determined. learn more The RECIST did not significantly correlate with locoregional control (LRC) or survival. The Delta LR was significantly lower for the lesions with locoregional failure (LRF) than for those with LRC. A threshold Delta LR of 48% revealed a sensitivity of 72.7% and specificity of 77.3% for the prediction of LRF. Progression-free survival (PFS) of patients

with Delta LR bigger than = 48% was significantly better than that of patients with Delta LR smaller than 48% (P = 0.001), but not overall survival. There was a significant correlation between LRC and the EORTC (P = 0.02). The patients who achieved a complete response by the EORTC criteria showed significantly better PFS and overall survival (P = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). The Delta LR was inferior to FDG PET-CT with respect to the prediction of patient survival; however, it may be useful for selecting patients in need of more aggressive AZD1480 solubility dmso monitoring after CRT.”
“Backgound: Few studies have examined associations among insurance status, treatment, and outcomes in patients hospitalized for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: Through retrospective analyses of the Get With The Guidelines

(GWTG)-Stroke database, a national prospective stroke registry, from April 2003 to April 2011, we identified 95,986 nontransferred subjects hospitalized with ICH. Insurance status was categorized as Private/Other, Medicaid, Medicare, or None/Not Documented (ND). Associations between insurance status and in-hospital outcomes GF120918 nmr and quality of care measures were analyzed using patient-and hospitalspecific variables as covariates. Results: There were significant differences in age and frequency of comorbid conditions by insurance group. Compliance with evidence-based quality of care indicators varied across all insurance status groups (P < .0001) but was generally high. In adjusted analysis with the Private insurance group as reference, the None/ND group most consistently demonstrated higher odds ratios (ORs) for quality of care measures (Dysphagia Screen: OR 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.17, P = .0096; Stroke Education: OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.05-1.29, P = .0042; and Rehabilitation: OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.44, P = .0027).

The decay time course of GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsyn

The decay time course of GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) onto POMC neurons in POMC: Lepr(-/-) GFP mice is significantly slower than that of sIPSCs in control animals. While analysis of individual miniature IPSCs shows lowered baseline activity, this tonic decrease is associated with an increased amplitude and slow decay of mini-IPSCs onto POMC neurons in POMC: Lepr(-/-) GFP mice. Moreover, POMC neurons receive greater total ionic ASP2215 solubility dmso flux per GABAergic event in the absence of leptin receptor signaling. In addition, treatment with the alpha 3 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptor modulator SB-205384 enhances GABAergic transmission only onto POMC neurons in POMC: Lepr(-/-) GFP mice.

Single-cell RT-PCR analysis further supports the expression of the alpha 3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor on POMC neurons in POMC: Lepr(-/-) GFP mice. Finally, the responses to the GABA(A) receptor agonist isoguvacine of POMC neurons are significantly smaller in POMC: Lepr(-/-) GFP than in control animals. Therefore our present work demonstrates that loss of leptin signaling in Doramapimod research buy POMC neurons induces synaptic alterations at POMC synapses that may play an essential role in energy homeostasis.”
“A new type of double-stranded DNA targeting format by formation of a Janus-Wedge (J-W) triple helix is described. The “wedge” residue W-1

is used for A-T and T-A base pairs while W-2 is used for G-C and C-G base pairs. Both wedge residues are attached to a PNA backbone that is designed to insert the probe strand into double-stranded DNA and base pair with bothe Watson-Crick faces. To study the stability of such an assembly, we have

examined the formation of the J-W triplex with various sequences.”
“Endosulfan is a potent organochlorinated pesticide that is known to induce side effects in aquatic organisms, including Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia). It has been previously shown that endosulfan induces oxidative stress and non-specific activation of splenic macrophages and exacerbated serum interleukin-2 synthesis in Nile tilapia. Endosulfan may promote proliferation of T cells through MAP kinase (MAPK) activated signal transductions. The ERK family of MAPKs includes ERK1 and ERK2. Phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) molecules are involved in many aspects of cellular survival, and are important for apoptosis or oxidative stress-induced senescence. In order to study the mechanisms by which endosulfan affects fish health, the present study was aimed at evaluating the in vitro effects of this insecticide on proliferation, the ERK1/2 pathway, apoptosis and cell senescence in splenocytes from Nile tilapia.\n\nLymphoproliferation was evaluated by colorimetric method using the WST-1 assay. Flow cytometry was used to assess pERK1/2, apoptosis and senescence, using Annexin V-FITC and beta-galactosidase respectively.

The main phenolic in the samples was isorhamnetin-3-O-[alpha-rham

The main phenolic in the samples was isorhamnetin-3-O-[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 - bigger

than 6)-beta-glucopyranoside]. The HPLC pattern of the phenolic-enriched NCT-501 cost extracts of the fruits allows a differentiation of samples from the Elqui and Limari valleys. All fruit extracts and Amberlite-retained fraction from the methanolic extract were devoid of toxicity against human gastric AGS cells and human lung fibroblasts, with IC50 values bigger than 400 mu g/mL for AGS and 344 to bigger than 400 mu g/mL for fibroblasts, respectively. The compound identification, associated with the antioxidant activity and insignificant cell toxicity, adds relevant information for the possible development of this native fruit into a new crop. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In response to a call for the global eradication of malaria, drug discovery has recently been extended to identify compounds that prevent the onward transmission of the parasite, which is mediated by Plasmodium falciparum stage V gametocytes. Lately, metabolic activity has been used in vitro as a surrogate for gametocyte viability; however, as gametocytes remain relatively quiescent at this stage, their ability to undergo onward development (gamete formation) may be a better measure of their functional viability. During gamete formation, female gametocytes undergo profound morphological changes and express translationally

repressed mRNA. By assessing female gamete find more AZD2171 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor cell surface expression of one such repressed protein, Pfs25, as the readout for female gametocyte functional viability, we developed an imaging-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to identify transmission- blocking compounds. This assay, designated the P. falciparum female gametocyte activation assay (FGAA), was scaled up to a high-throughput format (Z= factor, 0.7 +/- 0.1) and subsequently validated using a selection of 50 known antimalarials from diverse chemical families. Only a few of these agents showed submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations in the assay: thiostrepton, methylene

blue, and some endoperoxides. To determine the best conditions for HTS, a robustness test was performed with a selection of the GlaxoSmithKline Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set (TCAMS) and the final screening conditions for this library were determined to be a 2 mu Mconcentration and 48 h of incubation with gametocytes. The P. falciparum FGAA has been proven to be a robust HTS assay faithful to Plasmodium transmission-stage cell biology, and it is an innovative useful tool for antimalarial drug discovery which aims to identify new molecules with transmission-blocking potential.”
“The causes of systemic venous hypertension (SVHT) include cardiac- and circulatory-related factors, whereas its consequences include the congestion of hepatic, splanchnic, and peripheral circulations, which contribute significantly to the clinical congestive heart failure syndrome.

Materials and Methods A total of 46 subjects received doses of 30

Materials and Methods A total of 46 subjects received doses of 30-3000 mu g i.v. of roledumab or placebo using a double-blind escalating single-dose design; 12 of these subjects also received 300 mu g i.m. of roledumab. Subjects were 17DMAG cost followed for 6 months after administration. Serum roledumab concentrations were determined using flow cytometry. Results Fourteen treatment-emergent adverse events related to treatment were reported in nine subjects, with no apparent difference in their frequency or nature after placebo or roledumab administration. No anti-roledumab

antibodies were detected. AUClast increased from 4.4 ng/ at 30 mu g i.v. to 2257 ng/ at 3000 g i.v. The t(1/2) ranged from 18 to 22 days, and the absolute bioavailability after i.m. administration was between 73% and 80%. Conclusion Roledumab is safe and well tolerated in healthy RhD-negative volunteers and shows a pharmacokinetic profile similar to that of polyclonal anti-RhD immunoglobulin.”
“BACKGROUND: selleck Mandarins suffer from accumulation of off-flavours after harvest. In this study the sensory quality and aroma profile composition of homogenised segments

of untreated (control) and wax-coated ‘Mor’ mandarins after 7 days at 20 C or 3 or 6 weeks of cold storage at 5 C were examined.\n\nRESULTS: Fruit taste score decreased during storage and following wax coating, and this was attributed to decreases in sourness and this website mandarin flavour and accumulation of off-flavours. Aroma profiling identified 31 volatiles that decreased by at least 50% during storage and after waxing and thus may

be involved in the observed flavour loss. In contrast, 13 volatiles, mostly belonging to ethanol fermentation and fatty acid and amino acid catabolism pathways, significantly increased at least twofold and probably contributed to off-flavour enhancement.\n\nCONCLUSION: The results showed that after harvest there was a progressive decrease in sensory quality of ‘Mor’ mandarins. It is proposed that observed decreases in contents of sesqui- and monoterpenes and short-chain oxygenated fatty acids may contribute to the decrease in mandarin flavour, whereas increases in the contents of ethanol fermentation metabolites and derivates of fatty acid and amino acid catabolism are most likely involved in causing the enhanced sensation of off-flavours. (C) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry”
“The present study was the first time to investigate the effects of celastrol, derived from Trypterygium wilfordii Hook F. (“Thunder of God Vine”), a traditional Chinese medicine plant, on the metabolism of model probe substrates of CYP isoforms, CYP1A2, CYP2C11, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A2, which are important in the metabolism of a variety of xenobiotics.

This study investigated the osteogenic effect of low-magnitude hi

This study investigated the osteogenic effect of low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV, 35 Hz, 0.3g) on the enhancement of fracture healing in rats with closed femoral shaft fracture by comparing with sham-treated control. Assessments with plain radiography, click here micro-CT as well as histomorphometry showed that the amount of callus was significantly larger (p = 0.001 for callus area, 2 weeks posttreatment); the remodeling

of the callus into mature bone was significantly faster (p = 0.039, 4 weeks posttreatment) in the treatment group. The mechanical strength of the healed fracture in the treatment group at 4 weeks was significantly greater (p < 0.001). The results showed the acceleration of callus formation, mineralization, and fracture healing in the treatment group. It is concluded that LMHFV enhances healing in the closed femoral shaft fracture in rats. The potential clinical advantages shall

be confirmed in the subsequent clinical trials. (C) 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 27:458-465, 2009″
“In epilepsy diagnosis or epileptic seizure detection, much effort has been focused on finding effective combination of feature extraction and classification methods. In this paper, we develop a wavelet-based sparse functional linear model for representation of EEG signals. AG-881 The aim of this modeling approach is to capture discriminative random components Lonafarnib order of EEG signals using wavelet variances. To achieve this goal, a forward search algorithm is proposed for determination of an appropriate wavelet decomposition level. Two EEG databases from University of Bonn and University of Freiburg are used for illustration of applicability of the proposed method to both epilepsy diagnosis

and epileptic seizure detection problems. For this data considered, we show that wavelet-based sparse functional linear model with a simple classifier such as 1-NN classification method leads to higher classification results than those obtained using other complicated methods such as support vector machine. This approach produces a 100 % classification accuracy for various classification tasks using the EEG database from University of Bonn, and outperforms many other state-of-the-art techniques. The proposed classification scheme leads to 99 % overall classification accuracy for the EEG data from University of Freiburg.”
“Myelodysplastic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and the propensity to leukemic transformation. Their pathogenesis is complex and likely depends on interplay between aberrant hematopoietic cells and their microenvironment.