“Background: Preventive health

“Background: Preventive health DMXAA cell line check-ups in Austria are offered free of charge to all insured adults (98% of the population) and focus on early detection of chronic diseases, primary prevention, and health counseling. The study aims to explore predictors of compliance with the recommended interval of preventive health check-up performance.\n\nMethods: Source of data was the Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006/07 (15,474 subjects). Participation in a preventive health examination during the last three years was used as dependent variable. Socio-demographic and health-related characteristics were used as independent variables

in a multivariate logistic regression analysis.\n\nResults: Results show that 41.6% of men and 41.8% of women had attended a preventive health check-up within the last three years. In multivariate analysis, subjects >= 40 years, with higher education, higher income or born in Austria were significantly more likely to attend a preventive health check-up. Furthermore, a chronic disease was associated with a higher attendance rate (OR: 1.21; CI: 1.07-1.36 in men; OR: 1.19; CI: 1.06-1.33

in women).\n\nConclusions: Attendance FDA approved Drug Library cell assay rates for health check-ups in the general Austrian population are comparatively high but not equally distributed among subgroups. Health check-ups must increase among people at a young age, with a lower socio-economic status, migration background and in good health.”
“In this study we investigated the in vitro antifungal activity of 10 DNA topoisomerase inhibitors on the growth of Candida albicans. The EUCAST broth microdilution method was A-1331852 used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the compounds for C albicans. In addition, the effect of the inhibitors on the growth mode of C albicans was investigated by light microscopy imaging. Of the 10 DNA topoisomerase inhibitors tested, only the anti-cancer drug aclarubicin displayed antifungal activity with a determinable MIC value of 8.4 mu g/ml (10.3 mu M). Aclarubicin was also active against clinical isolates of C. albicans with MIC values ranging between 0.8 and 7.3 mu g/ml

(1-9 mu M). Vitality assays showed that the action of aclarubicin was fungistatic. Four other DNA topoisomerase inhibitors, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, idarubicin and beta-lapachone, affected the morphology of C. albicans. The first three inhibitors encouraged the fungus to grow predominantly in the yeast form, whereas P-lapachone caused hyphal proliferation. The results of this study indicate that some DNA topoisomerase inhibitors effect the growth and morphology of C albicans suggesting a possible role as antifungal agents in the treatment of C. albicans infections.”
“Aims.\n\nTo describe difficulties encountered by older widows in Taiwan and the impact of intrinsic or extrinsic religiosity on their coping strategies during early widowhood.\n\nBackground.

“The results of the first investigation on secondary metab

“The results of the first investigation on secondary metabolites occurring in intact and damaged fruiting bodies of Russula nobilis growing in Europe, are reported. Intact mushrooms contain fatty acid esters of velutinal, while three new sesquiterpenoids, russulanobilines A-C, along with eight known ones were isolated from extracts of injured fruiting bodies. click here The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral data, molecular modeling, and C-13 NMR spectra

calculation. This pattern of sesquiterpenes constitutes a new variant of a chemical defense machinery which protects mushrooms against predators, parasites, and microorganisms. (C) 2014 Elsevier Rabusertib research buy Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Infection by Aspergillus fumigatus, which causes the life-threatening disease invasive aspergillosis, begins with the inhalation of conidia that adhere to and germinate in the lung. Previous studies have shown that A. fumigatus conidia express high levels of the negatively charged 9-carbon sugar sialic acid, and that sialic acid appears to mediate the binding of A. fumigatus conidia to basal lamina proteins. However, despite the ability of sialic acid to inhibit adherence of A. fumigatus conidia, the exact mechanism by which this binding occurs remains unresolved. Utilizing various free sialic

acids and other carbohydrates, sialic acid derivatives, sialoglycoconjugates, glycoproteins, alpha-keto acid related compounds and amino acids we have found that the binding of A. fumigatus conidia to type IV collagen and fibrinogen was inhibited by (i) glycoproteins (in a sialic acid-independent manner), and (ii) free sialic acids, glucuronic acid and alpha-keto acid related compounds. However, inhibition by the latter was found to be the result of a shift in pH from neutral check details (pH 7.4) to acidic (less than pH 4.6) induced by the relatively high concentrations of free sialic acids, glucuronic acid and alpha-keto acid related compounds used in the binding assays. This suggests that previous reports describing

inhibition of A. fumigatus conidia binding by free sialic acid may actually be due to a pH shift similar to that shown here. As previously reported, we found that A. fumigatus conidia express only N-acetylneuraminic acid, the most common sialic acid found in nature. However, A. fumigatus appears to do so by an alternative mechanism to that seen in other organisms. We report here that A. fumigatus (i) does not incorporate sialic acid obtained from the environment, (ii) does not synthesize and incorporate sialic acid from exogenous N-acetylmannosamine, and (iii) lacks homologues of known sialic acid biosynthesizing enzymes.”
“Aim: Malignant tumours ferment glucose to lactate even in the presence of sufficient oxygen (the Warburg effect). Transketolases seem to be involved in this metabolic switch.

Mutations that impair the photoperiodic flowering pathway prevent

Mutations that impair the photoperiodic flowering pathway prevent this downregulation of SVP and the strong increase in expression of GA20ox2. We conclude that SVP delays flowering by repressing GA biosynthesis as well as integrator gene expression and that, in response to inductive photoperiods, repression

of SVP contributes CT99021 clinical trial to the rise in GA at the shoot apex, promoting rapid induction of flowering.”
“The transport receptor Mex67-Mtr2 functions in mRNA export, and also by a loop-confined surface on the heterodimer binds to and exports pre-60S particles. We show that Mex67-Mtr2 through the same surface that recruits pre-60S particles interacts with the Nup84 complex, a structural module of the nuclear pore

complex devoid of Phe-Gly domains. In vitro, pre-60S particles and the Nup84 complex compete for an overlapping binding site on the loop-extended Mex67-Mtr2 surface. Chemical crosslinking identified Nup85 as the subunit in the Nup84 complex that directly binds to the Mex67 loop. Genetic studies revealed that this interaction is crucial for mRNA export. Notably, pre-60S subunit export impaired by mutating Mtr2 or the 60S adaptor Nmd3 could be partially restored by second-site mutation in Nup85 that caused dissociation of Mex67-Mtr2 from the Nup84 complex. Thus, the Mex67-Mtr2 export receptor employs Bindarit concentration a versatile binding platform on its surface that could create a crosstalk between mRNA and ribosome export pathways.”
“The aim of the present study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of two antiglaucomatous substances, regardless of their hypotensive effect in the eye. Brimonidine, SC79 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor which does not reduce IOP when administered intraperitoneally, and latanoprost, which has a renowned hypotensive effect topically. We examined rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and size distribution in experimental glaucoma in response to different glaucomatous agents. IOP was elevated by episcleral vein cauterization

(EVC) prior to the application of different treatments: (I) PBS application (control group), (II) intraperitoneal administration of brimonidine (a general hypotensive agent), (III) topical application of latanoprost(an ocular hypotensive agent), and (IV) latanoprost combined with brimonidine. After 12 weeks, RGCs were retrogradely labeled with fluorogold and RGC density was analyzed. EVC caused a significant increase (42%) in IOP in each group before drug treatment. After 12 weeks of EVC, RGC survival in control vs. EVC rats was 78.9 +/- 3.2%. No IOP reduction was observed in brimonidine injected rats, but RGC survival at 12 weeks was total (103.7 +/- 2.7%). In latanoprost treated rats, IOP dropped by around 22% and 94.7 +/- 3.7% of the RGC population survived. Finally in the latanoprost + brimonidine combined group, IOP was significantly reduced by 25% and 94.4 +/- 2.2% of RGCs survived.

The expression of cTnT-driven eGFP was strongest in cardiomyocyte

The expression of cTnT-driven eGFP was strongest in cardiomyocytes bordering the infarct zone. In the efficacy study of EcSOD, post-infarct LV end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes at days 14 and 28 were significantly smaller in the EcSOD group compared to the control.\n\nConclusions Systemic administration of AAV9 vectors after IR both elevates and accelerates gene

expression that preferentially targets cardiomyocytes in the border zone with pharmacodynamics suitable for the attenuation of LV remodeling. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Malignant brain tumors selleck chemicals are aggressive tumors with a very poor prognosis. Survival is on average 12 to 18 months. Patients with malignant gliomas are subject to multiple medical problems that can significantly impact their overall survival and quality of life, including seizures, cerebral edema, venous

thromboembolism, cognitive and psychiatric disorders, and side effects of chemotherapy, such as nausea, vomiting, myelosuppression, constipation, and diarrhea. This article examines the evidence for managing many of these issues to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life. (JNCCN 2013;11:424-429)”
“PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of a povidone-iodine 0.4%-dexamethasone 0.1% suspension against bacterial, AZD3965 in vitro fungal, and Acanthamoeba clinical isolates.\n\nSETTING: Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, McKnight Research Building, Miami, see more Florida, USA.\n\nDESIGN: Experimental study.\n\nMETHODS: One hundred milliliters of 10(4) colony-forming units/mL of ocular isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (M RSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, and Acanthamoeba castellanii were inoculated into 100 mu L of a povidone-iodine 0.4%-dexamethasone 0.1% suspension in a 96-well microtiter plate incubated at room temperature. Organism viability was assessed at 15, 30, and 60 seconds by removing 10 mu L aliquots and streaking onto a 5.0% sheep blood agar plate (fungi and bacteria) and agar-agar

(Acanthamoeba) using a 0.001 calibrated loop. The plates were then incubated at 35 degrees C and monitored for up to 7 days. Isolates were inoculated into 200 mu L of trypticase soy broth as controls. The number of colonies was counted and compared with controls to determine the kill rate.\n\nRESULTS: A 99.9% kill was observed for MRSA, P aeruginosa, S marcescens, and C albicans after 15 seconds of exposure and for F solani after 60 seconds. Acanthamoeba castellanii cyst viability was not inhibited by exposure to the povidone-iodine and dexamethasone suspension. Organism growth was achieved on all control broth.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Povidone-iodine 0.4%-dexamethasone 0.1% suspension killed all bacterial and candida isolates within 15 seconds of exposure.

These results indicate that UV irradiation given after alloantige

These results indicate that UV irradiation given after alloantigen immunization induces alloantigen-specific

type I regulatory T cell-like regulatory T cells that prolong allograft survival and imply that the difficulties associated with predicting donor-related organ availability in transplantation can be dealt with, given the effectiveness of UV irradiation after immunization. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Distraction osteogenesis is one of the common procedures for limb lengthening. However, attempts are being made constantly to establish objective guidelines for early and safe removal of a fixator using a sensitive and quantitative measurement technique. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been evaluated in the past for understanding callus stiffness, and the present study is a step further in this direction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 3-Methyladenine inhibitor the correlation between bone mineral density ratio (BMDR)

Selleck Momelotinib obtained by a DEXA scan and the pixel value ratio (PVR) on plain digital radiographs at each cortex and various callus pathways and callus shapes as described by Ru-Li’s classification. A retrospective analysis of 40 tibial segments in 23 patients operated upon for various indications for limb lengthening was carried out. There were 11 male and 12 female patients with a mean age of 18 years. The Ilizarov method was applied after monofocal osteotomy, and distraction and consolidation were monitored using digital radiographs and DEXA scanning. BMDR was positively correlated with PVR, and the optimal BMDR for removal of the fixator was

found to be 0.511. PVR of all cortices, except the anterior cortex, showed significant positive correlation with BMDR of the regenerate. There was good correlation between BMDR and PVR in the Entinostat Epigenetics inhibitor homogenous or heterogenous pathway according to callus shape and pathway. Thus, this study shows that BMD measurement can provide an objective and noninvasive method for assessing the rate of new bone formation during tibial distraction osteogenesis. It can thus function as an effective adjunct to measure callus stiffness, along with PVR, using digital radiographs, especially in cases in which callus maturation and stiffness is doubtful. Further studies especially dealing with callus progression through the lucent pathway as well as those dealing with regenerate fractures may be needed to conclusively prove the efficacy of this method for measurement of callus maturation. J Pediatr Orthop B 21:137-145 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Methods: The medical records of dogs with dermatological signs were reviewed. Prevalence of AFRs was calculated. Owner and clinician pruritus scores were compared. Breed, sex and age predisposition were statistically tested, as was the association between AFR and selected clinical features.

From 2004 to 2012, 11 lung cancer patients (six male, five fe

\n\nFrom 2004 to 2012, 11 lung cancer patients (six male, five female; mean age, 62.7 years) with

schizophrenia underwent lung resections at our institutions. All patients had been institutionalized because they were unable to live independently at home. We retrospectively evaluated their postoperative clinical outcomes and long-term results.\n\nTen of the 11 patients had comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Preoperatively, two patients had a history of treatment for other primary cancers in other organs, and one was on hemodialysis. A lobectomy was performed in nine patients, a segmentectomy in one, and a partial resection in one. There were no hospital deaths. The postoperative morbidity included two cases of pneumonia, one of atelectasis, and one of prolonged YM155 solubility dmso air leakage lasting more than 7 days. Wandering SNX-5422 research buy was postoperatively observed in two patients; one of these fell and fractured the left femur. At the time of our investigation, two patients were deceased, and the overall 5-year survival rate was 74.1 %.\n\nThe postoperative morbidity and long-term results of schizophrenic patients with lung cancer were acceptable. Therefore, even in patients with schizophrenia, surgical treatment for lung cancer should be recommended when deemed to be necessary.”
“Purpose of review\n\nThe present review discusses recent advances,

challenges and opportunities for the best use of

conjugate vaccines now and in the future.\n\nRecent findings\n\nDirect protection in young children may be short-lived and programme effectiveness may depend heavily on indirect protection (herd immunity). Pneumococcal carriage serotype replacement has been widely reported following vaccine implementation. Use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is being trialled in the elderly. Vaccination in west Africa against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (Men A), a new monovalent conjugate vaccine, was commenced in December 2010. New conjugate vaccines against, for example, Salmonella typhi and Streptococcus agalactiae, are being developed and tested in clinical trials.\n\nSummary\n\nConjugate vaccines have been extensively used to immunize children, resulting in significant decreases in childhood morbidity and mortality. Since A-1155463 cell line their introduction, evidence has grown that protection against disease is due to both direct and indirect protection (herd immunity). The optimization of priming and booster dose regimens in existing paediatric vaccination programmes, aiming for maximal and sustained direct and indirect protection using as few doses per child as possible, may broaden conjugate vaccine impact and augment cost-effectiveness in the future. This may be particularly important in strategies for wider global use of conjugate vaccines in children, as well as use in adults and the elderly.

Besides the alkyl chain length of the cations, other factors infl

Besides the alkyl chain length of the cations, other factors influencing extraction efficiency were systematically investigated, including concentration of the IL solutions, extraction

time, matrix-to-solvent ratio and irradiation power.”
“The effectiveness of Resovist-labeled bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) was evaluated in vivo following their cerebral transplantation in a model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in rats using MRI, and the MRI see more findings were further compared with the behavior and histopathological manifestations of these rats. Forty PD rats were randomly assigned into five groups according to the cell doses injected into the rat brain site: control group (normal saline injection) and groups injected with 1×10(5), 1.5×10(5), 2×10(5), and 2.5×10(5) BMSCs. Gradient echo T2-weighted images were obtained immediately after cell transplantation and repeatedly taken 1, 4, 8, and 12 week(s) after cell transplantation. The rotational behavior of the animals was observed before and 1, 4, and 8 week(s) after transplantation.

The rats were killed after the last MRI scanning, the brain tissues were analyzed by histopathology techniques, and RNAs were extracted for the expression analysis of selected genes using RT-PCR. One week following cell transplantation, all injected sites showed well-defined hypointense areas on MR images, with the most significant effect observed in rats injected with 2×10(5) BMSCs. These MR findings in PD rats lasted up to 12 weeks. The effectiveness selleck screening library of BMSC transplantation revealed by MRI was well confirmed by the behavioral and histopathological observations as well as indirectly supported by gene expression analyses. With the use of SPIO labeling, MRI techniques provided a dynamic evaluation of the spatial and temporal changes following cell transplantation and allowed the association analysis among the imaging, functions, and gene expression analysis in rats. These data also suggest the therapeutic potential of transplanted

BMSCs. It is reasonable to speculate that the use of MRI in in vivo evaluation of the effect and fate of transplanted cells LY2157299 cell line in various disease models will be beneficial to developing new strategies of cell-based gene therapy.”
“Background: Patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy for endometrial and cervical carcinomas from 1981 to 2000 were retrospectively analysed in order to assess the rate of late small bowel toxicity. Patients and Methods: Eight hundred and six patients had received pelvic irradiation, with total doses of 40-55 Gy. The mean age was 57 years. Three hundred and eighteen patients had been treated for cervical and 488 for endometrial cancer; 46 had diabetes and 22 vascular diseases; 141 had a history of smoking and 367 were previously submitted to surgery for benign diseases.

(C) 2010 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“A role for WNT

(C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A role for WNT signalling in gastric carcinogenesis has been suggested due to two major observations. First, patients with germline mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) are susceptible to stomach polyps and second, in find more gastric cancer, WNT activation confers a poor prognosis. However, the functional significance of deregulated WNT signalling in gastric homoeostasis and cancer is still unclear. In this study we have addressed this by investigating the immediate effects of WNT signalling

activation within the stomach epithelium. We have specifically activated the WNT signalling pathway within the mouse adult gastric epithelium via deletion of either glycogen synthase

kinase 3 (GSK3) or APC or via expression of a constitutively active beta-catenin protein. WNT pathway deregulation dramatically affects stomach homoeostasis at very short latencies. In the corpus, there is rapid loss of parietal cells with fundic gland polyp (FGP) formation and adenomatous change, which are similar to those observed in familial adenomatous polyposis. In the antrum, adenomas occur from 4 days post-WNT activation. Taken together, these data show a pivotal role for WNT signalling in gastric homoeostasis, FGP formation and adenomagenesis. Loss of the parietal cell population and corresponding FGP formation, an early event in gastric carcinogenesis, as well

as antral adenoma formation are immediate effects of nuclear beta-catenin translocation and WNT target gene expression. BAY 73-4506 concentration Furthermore, our inducible murine model will permit a better understanding of the molecular changes required to drive tumourigenesis in the stomach. Oncogene (2013) 32, 2048-2057; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.224; published online 4 June 2012″
“Viscum album L. is a semiparasitic plant grown on trees and widely used for the treatment of many diseases in traditional and complementary therapy. It is well known that some activities of Viscum album extracts are varied depending on the host trees, such as antioxidant, apoptosis-inducing, anticancer activities of the FK228 in vivo plant. The aim of the present study is to examine the comparative effects of methanolic extracts of V. album grown on three different host trees (locust tree, lime tree, and hedge maple tree) on H2O2-induced DNA damage in HeLa cells. Oxidative damage in mitochondrial DNA and two nuclear regions was assessed by QPCR assay. The cells were pretreated with methanolic extracts (10 mu g/mL) for 48 h, followed by the treatment with 750 mu M H2O2 for 1 hour. DNA damage was significantly induced by H2O2 while it was inhibited by V. album extracts. All extracts completely protected against nuclear DNA damage.

In behavioral assays, cKO mice showed decreased responsiveness to

In behavioral assays, cKO mice showed decreased responsiveness to acute noxious heat, mechanical, and chemical (capsaicin) stimuli, but responded normally to cold stimulation and in the formalin

test. Strikingly, although tissue injury-induced heat hyperalgesia was lost in the cKO mice, mechanical hypersensitivity developed normally. In a model of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, the magnitude of heat hypersensitivity was diminished in cKO mice, but both the mechanical allodynia and the microgliosis generated by nerve injury were intact. These findings suggest that VGLUT2 expression in nociceptors is essential for normal perception of acute pain and heat hyperalgesia, and that heat and mechanical hypersensitivity induced by peripheral injury rely on distinct (VGLUT2 dependent and VGLUT2 independent, respectively) Sonidegib primary afferent mechanisms and pathways.”

the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) began taking data in 2009, scenarios for a machine upgrade to achieve a much higher luminosity are being developed. In the current planning, it is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the LHC at CERN around 2018. As radiation damage scales with integrated luminosity, the particle physics experiments will need to be equipped with a new generation of radiation hard detectors. This article reports on the status of the R&D projects on radiation hard silicon strips detectors for particle physics, linked to the Large Hadron Collider Upgrade, super-LHC (sLHC) www.selleckchem.com/products/Cediranib.html of the ATLAS

microstrip detector. The primary focus of this report is on measuring the radiation hardness of the silicon materials and the detectors under study. This involves designing silicon detectors, irradiating them to the sLHC radiation levels and studying their performance as particle detectors. The most promising silicon detector for the different radiation levels in the different Buparlisib ic50 regions of the ATLAS microstrip detector will be presented. Important challenges related to engineering layout, powering, cooling and reading out a very large strip detector are presented. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown.”
“Purpose: To identify factors affecting the clinical course and survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.\n\nMaterials and Methods: One hundred thirty-eight patients who were treated with surgical excision of primary tongue cancer and neck dissection were analyzed retrospectively. The study had a median follow-up period of 23 months. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses for prognostic risk factors were performed using the Cox regression method. Survival curves were processed with the Kaplan-Meier method.\n\nResults: The 138 patients (73 male, 65 female) had a median age of 60 years.

We think that a working model that is effective in the treatment

We think that a working model that is effective in the treatment of persons buy Givinostat with ADHD can only be consolidated by means of a thorough understanding

of the syndromes involved in this deficit.\n\nDevelopment. In addition to reviewing the latest and most significant proposals aimed at improving the cognitive understanding of the disorder, this work also refers to three neurobiological syndromes that are recognised as forming part of ADHD, i.e. medial cingulate syndrome, dorsolateral syndrome and orbitofrontal syndrome.\n\nConclusions. Advances in neuroscientific research and the design of computerised treatment materials offer extremely valuable data that will undoubtedly help to improve the results of psychopedagogical and neuropsychological interventions in ADHD, since they provide information about the temporal and spatial equation.”
“Objective: To investigate whether being quarantined to contain H1N1 flu transmission is related to immediate negative psychological consequences

or not.\n\nMethods: Immediate psychological consequences were evaluated with the 20-item Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and the Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R) among 419 undergraduate students (176 being quarantined and 243 being nonquarantined).\n\nResults: No significant difference was found between the quarantined group and the nonquarantined group for IES-R screening-positive rate or SRQ-20 screening-positive rate. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that dissatisfaction with control measures was the significant predictor of both SRQ-20 positive buy HKI-272 screening (OR=2.22) and IES-R positive screening (OR=2.22).\n\nConclusion: These results are consistent BI 2536 Cell Cycle inhibitor with

the conclusion that quarantine does not have negative psychological effects under these circumstances. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Complex networks describe a wide range of systems in nature and society. To understand complex networks, it is crucial to investigate their community structure. In this paper, we develop an online community detection algorithm with linear time complexity for large complex networks. Our algorithm processes a network edge by edge in the order that the network is fed to the algorithm. If a new edge is added, it just updates the existing community structure in constant time, and does not need to re-compute the whole network. Therefore, it can efficiently process large networks in real time. Our algorithm optimizes expected modularity instead of modularity at each step to avoid poor performance. The experiments are carried out using 11 public data sets, and are measured by two criteria, modularity and NMI ( Normalized Mutual Information). The results show that our algorithm’s running time is less than the commonly used Louvain algorithm while it gives competitive performance.