20 % yield relative to the theoretical maximum yield, a productiv

20 % yield relative to the theoretical maximum yield, a productivity of 6.01 g/L h and a residual sucrose concentration of 44.33 g/L. With some changes in the process such as recirculation of medium during the fermentation process

and increase in cellular concentration in the inoculum after use of the CCD was possible to reduce the residual sucrose concentration to 2.8 g/L in 9 h of fermentation and increase yield and productivity MDV3100 research buy for 92.75 % and 9.26 g/L h, respectively. A model was developed to describe the inhibition of alcoholic fermentation kinetics by the substrate and the product. The maximum specific growth rate was 0.103 h(-1), with K-I and K-s values of 109.86 and 30.24 g/L, respectively. The experimental results from the fed-batch reactor show a good fit with the proposed model, resulting in a maximum growth rate of 0.080 h(-1).”
“IMPORTANCE In phase 2 studies, evolocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to PCSK9, reduced LDL-C levels in patients receiving statin therapy. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of evolocumab when used in combination with a moderate-vs high-intensity

statin. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Phase 3, 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-and ezetimibe-controlled study conducted between January and December of 2013 in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia at 198 sites in 17 countries. INTERVENTIONS Patients (n = 2067) were randomized to 1 of 24 treatment groups in 2 steps. Nutlin-3 inhibitor Patients were initially randomized to a daily, moderate-intensity (atorvastatin [10 mg], simvastatin [40mg], or rosuvastatin [5 mg]) or high-intensity (atorvastatin [80 mg], rosuvastatin [40mg]) statin. After a 4-week lipid-stabilization period, patients (n = 1899) were randomized to compare evolocumab (140 mg every

2 weeks or 420mg monthly) with placebo (every 2 weeks or monthly) or ezetimibe (10 mg or placebo daily; atorvastatin patients only) when added to statin therapies. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Percent change from baseline in low-density lipoprotein LB-100 solubility dmso cholesterol (LDL-C) level at the mean of weeks 10 and 12 and at week 12. RESULTS Evolocumab reduced LDL-C levels by 66%(95% CI, 58% to 73%) to 75%(95% CI, 65% to 84%) (every 2weeks) and by 63%(95% CI, 54% to 71%) to 75%(95% CI, 67% to 83%) (monthly) vs placebo at the mean of weeks 10 and 12 in the moderate-and high-intensity statin-treated groups; the LDL-C reductions at week 12 were comparable. For moderate-intensity statin groups, evolocumab every 2weeks reduced LDL-C from a baseline mean of 115 to 124mg/ dL to an on-treatment mean of 39 to 49mg/dL; monthly evolocumab reduced LDL-C from a baseline mean of 123 to 126mg/dL to an on-treatment mean of 43 to 48mg/dL.

By tuning the area fraction of the small disks, relaxation proces

By tuning the area fraction of the small disks, relaxation process for the small disks shows concave-to-convex crossover and logarithmic GS-9973 price decay behavior, as found in other binary mixtures with large size disparity. Moreover, diffusion of both species is suppressed by adding small disks. Long-time diffusion for the small disks shows power-law-like behavior at sufficiently high area fractions of the small disks, which implies precursors

of a glass transition for the large disks and a localization transition for the small disks. Therefore, our results demonstrate the generic dynamic features in highly size-asymmetric binary mixtures. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4751546]“
“Inappropriate antibiotic use contributes to the emergence and spread of drug resistant infections. Though injection drug users are at increased risk for drug resistant infections, few studies have examined antibiotic use in this population.\n\nTo Dactolisib datasheet understand patterns and determinants of antibiotic use among injection drug users.\n\nFive focus groups were conducted with 28 current injection drug

users recruited from a syringe exchange program in Philadelphia and analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify emergent themes. Twenty-six participants also completed a written survey instrument.\n\nInjection drug users reported frequent antibiotic exposure, with 12 of 26 participants reporting use of antibiotic medications at least once in the previous 30 days. Participants reported several patterns of antibiotic use that were S63845 order potentially harmful, including delays in seeking medical care, failing to fill prescriptions, obtaining antibiotics from non-provider sources, and poor adherence

to prescribed regimens. The major determinants of inappropriate antibiotic use were delayed recognition of severity of illness, reluctance to wait to be seen, previous mistreatment by providers, lack of insurance, prioritizing purchasing drugs of abuse over antibiotics, forgetting to take antibiotics because of distractions that accompany drug use, concerns about interactions between antibiotics and other substances, and an irregular diet. Additionally, injection drug users commonly misunderstood the concept of antibiotic resistance and equated it with tolerance.\n\nInjection drug users reported potentially dangerous antibiotic use behaviors and described determinants of these behaviors. Outreach and educational interventions to improve antibiotic use should target high-risk populations, such as injection drug users, and consider their distinct antibiotic use behaviors and determinants.”
“The sensory innervation of the clavicle remains controversial. The supraclavicular, subclavian, and long thoracic/suprascapular nerves, alone or together, may be responsible for pain transmission after clavicular fracture and surgery.

Retinas, of prenatal, postnatal and adult mice were collected for

Retinas, of prenatal, postnatal and adult mice were collected for histological and immunohistochemical staining to investigate the changes in distribution of these PGs. Decorin-and fibromodulin-immunostainings were diffusely distributed at prenatal and early postnatal stages and, were stronger in the adult retina. However, biglycan was moderately distributed in the prenatal and early postnatal stages and was faint in the adult retina. Retinas were collected at I, 3

and 7 days after intravitreal injection of KA. Retinas of KA injected eyes underwent shrinkage accompanied by serious damage in the inner layers. Decorin and fibromodulin were upregulated in the inner retinal layers

Elacridar clinical trial of KA-injected eyes compared to the normal ones. Our results suggest that decorin and fibromodulin play key roles in retinal differentiation, KPT-8602 solubility dmso and contribute to the retinal damage and repair process. However, biglycan may have no or only a limited role in the mouse retinal development or repair process.”
“Four economically important species of earthworm were cultured and the external and internal characters of adult clitellate earthworms were studied. Partial sequences for ribosomal 16S rDNA and subunit one for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COI) of four earthworm species were obtained. The result of sequence analysis combined with taxonomic characters could distinguish the different species of earthworm. Morphology and nucleotide sequence of two genes for the red worm (Pheretima peguana) were distinct from Eudrilus eugeniae but were similar to the blue worm (Perionyx learn more excavatus) and Lao worm (P. excavates) and therefore, it was classified as a new species,

Perionyx sp. 1. Moreover, Eudrilus eugeniae was evidently defined as the same genus and species. Interestingly, the blue worm and Lao worm were morphologically similar to Perionyx sp. However, the molecular data of 16S rDNA could not differentiate in taxa of those two species. COI nucleotide sequence analyses showed the presence of divergent lineages between two species, suggesting the blue worm and Lao worm could be described as Perionyx sp. 2 and Perionyx sp. 3, respectively. c (C) 2011 Friends Science Publishers”
“Recent evidence from multiple neuroscience techniques indicates that regions within the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) are a critical node in the neural network for representing conceptual knowledge, yet their function remains elusive. The hub-and-spoke model holds that ATL regions act as a transmodal conceptual hub, distilling the various sensory-motor features of objects and words into integrated, coherent conceptual representations.

059 +/- 0 038 vs 0 039 +/- 0 016 mlO(2)/min/100 g, P < 0 003),

059 +/- 0.038 vs 0.039 +/- 0.016 mlO(2)/min/100 g, P < 0.003), not different in clinical subtypes, not correlated to patients’ characteristics (age, disease duration, Expanded Disability Status Scale, resting heart rate, skinfold thickness), and significantly Selleckchem STI571 higher in patients with lower walking ability (6MWD < 450 m, n = 12) compared to those at better performance (respectively, 0.072 +/- 0.043 vs 0.049 +/- 0.032 mlO(2)/min/100 g, P = 0.03).\n\nConclusion: rmVO(2) values, significantly higher in MS patients compared

to HC, and in low versus high performing patients, might represent a marker of peripheral adaptations occurred to sustain mobility, as observed in other chronic diseases.”
“SDS-PAGE is still one of the most widespread separation techniques in proteomic research and usually coupled to subsequent MS measurement for protein identification. The proteins Pitavastatin concentration are digested while embedded in the gel matrix. The resultant peptides are eluted out of the gel and finally analyzed. The in-gel digestion process suffers from several drawbacks which influence the experimental outcome with respect to protein sequence coverage and detection sensitivity. Limited accessibility

of the protease to the substrate protein and insufficient peptide extraction represent the two major problems. To specifically target these issues, we established a novel partly reversible gel system, in which the gel matrix can be conditionally cleaved to increase the pore diameters. By using a crosslinker CUDC-907 clinical trial mixture consisting of Bis and ethylene-glycol-diacrylate the acrylamide filament interconnections can be partly hydrolyzed in alkaline solution. The new hybrid gels have been tested to be compatible with a variety of acidic staining techniques. They exhibit similar electrophoretic performance compared with regular solely Bis-based gels, but yield significantly

better MS results. Thus, the Bis/ethylene-glycol-diacrylate SDS-PAGE gel system is a promising alternative for MS-based in-gel workflows and might be transferred to other gel-electrophoretic applications.”
“Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory and autoimmune disease accompanied by the destruction and deformities of joints. Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) is one of the excellent animal models of RA used to understand disease pathogenesis and screen potential drugs. In this paper, a urinary metabonomics method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) has been established to investigate the disease progression of AIA and find potential biomarkers of secondary inflammation in AIA rats. 24 potential biomarkers were identified, including xanthurenic acid, kynurenic acid, 4-pyridoxic acid, and phenylalanine, which revealed that tryptophan metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, gut microbiota metabolism and energy metabolism were disturbed in AIA rats.

Ambulatory venous pressure (AVP)

computed for some theore

Ambulatory venous pressure (AVP)

computed for some theoretical examples of superficial and FG-4592 ic50 for deep venous incompetence has been compared to in vivo values reported in literature.\n\nResults: In a normal subject, computed AVP was 33 mmHg during walking and 30 mmHg with tiptoe exercise; the range of conventionally measured AVP is 20.6-27.9 mmHg during walking, and 29-32.5 mmHg during tiptoe exercise; In the case of great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence, computed AVP was 34 or 57 mmHg, according to whether the distal GSV was competent or not. The range of AVP measured in superficial venous insufficiency is 27.6-61 mmHg, all but one of the published values lie between the low computed value corresponding to a short reflux and the high computed value due to a long distance reflux. AVP computed in two cases of deep venous incompetence was 44 and 71 mmHg, according to the extent of devalvulation, as compared with the 60 mmHg reported in one clinical study In patients with extensive combined incompetence, computed AVP was 75 mmHg, whilst the range of conventionally measured values was between 62 and 84 mmHg.\n\nConclusions: the good agreement between computed and measured AVP in different cases of valve incompetence indicates that the VRS is quite a realistic model, with the potential to simulate the results of surgery or compression therapy.”

is home to AS1842856 research buy the last intact guild of large carnivores and

thus provides the only opportunity to investigate mechanisms of coexistence among large predator species. Strong asymmetric dominance hierarchies typically characterize guilds of large carnivores; but despite this asymmetry, subdominant species may persist alongside their stronger counterparts through temporal partitioning of habitat and resources. In the African guild, the subdominant African wild dogs and cheetahs are routinely described as diurnal and crepuscular. These activity patterns have been interpreted to result from the need to avoid encounters with the stronger, nocturnal spotted hyenas and lions. However, the idea that diel activity patterns of carnivore species are strongly shaped by competition and predation has PF-03084014 cell line recently been challenged by new observations. In a three-year study in the Okavango Delta, we investigated daily activity patterns and temporal partitioning for wild dogs, cheetahs, spotted hyenas and lions by fitting radio collars that continuously recorded activity bursts, to a total of 25 individuals. Analysis of activity patterns throughout the 24-h cycle revealed an unexpectedly high degree of temporal overlap among the four species. This was mainly due to the extensive and previously undescribed nocturnal activity of wild dogs and cheetahs. Their nocturnal activity fluctuated with the lunar cycle, represented up to 40% of the diel activity budget and was primarily constrained by moonlight availability.

“We sought to investigate whether echocardiography with ti

“We sought to investigate whether echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging identifies myocardial dysfunction in children with benign joint hypermobility Tariquidar price syndrome (BJHS). This cross-sectional study enrolled 75 children with BJHS and 70 healthy children. We performed detailed echocardiography in individuals with BJHS without inherited

connective tissue disorders. Any congenital or acquired cardiac disease was excluded by clinical and echocardiographic examination. Both groups were similar in terms of age, sex, and body mass index. The diameter of the aortic annulus and sinus valsalva were wider in patients with BJHS. There was no significant differences in ejection fraction or mitral and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion between the two groups. Pulsed-wave Doppler-derived E/A ratios in mitral

and tricuspid valves were similar in both groups. Deceleration time of early mitral inflow was prolonged in patients with BJHS. Mitral Dibutyryl-cAMP mw and tricuspid annulus Ea velocity were significantly lower in children with BJHS. Ea, Aa, and Ea/Aa ratios in the interventricular septum, left ventricle posterior wall, and right ventricle free wall were lower in patients with BJHS than in the control group. The E/Ea ratio was greater in patients with BJHS than in the control group. Isovolumic relaxation time and right-ventricular (RV) and left-ventricular (LV) myocardial performance indices (MPIs) were greater in patients with BJHS. This study showed the diastolic dysfunction in patients with BJHS. In addition, we detected increased LV and RV MPI. We believe that BJHS may affect proteins of the myocardial cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix.”
“Background: Chronic breathlessness

is a significant problem in palliative care and oxygen is often prescribed in an attempt to ameliorate it. Often, this prescription falls outside the current funding guidelines for long-term home oxygen use. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand the factors that most influence Australian specialist palliative care nurses’ initiation of home oxygen for their patients.\n\nMethods: A series of focus Selleckchem GSK1904529A groups were held across three states in Australia in 2011 involving specialist palliative care nurses. The invitation to the nurses was sent by e-mail through their national association. Recorded and transcribed data were coded for themes and subthemes. A summary, which included quotes, was provided to participants to confirm.\n\nResults: Fifty-one experienced palliative care nurses participated in seven focus groups held in three capital cities. Two major themes were identified: 1) logistic/health service issues (not reported in this paper as specific to the Australian context) involving the local context of prescribing and, 2) clinical care issues that involved assessing the patient’s need for home oxygen and ongoing monitoring concerns.

A polyglycolic acid mesh (PGA) served as a reference


A polyglycolic acid mesh (PGA) served as a reference

group. Controls were analyzed 48 h after seeding porcine chondrocytes via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DNA, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) quantifications. constructs were cultured Crenolanib solubility dmso for 21 days prior to confocal microscopy, SEM, histology, and quantitive analysis (weight, water, DNA, GAG and collagen II). Chondrocytes maintained their phenotypic appearance and a viability above 85% oil the chitosan scaffolds. Chondrocytes attach preferentially to PGA, resulting in a greater cellularity of these constructs. However, based oil the GAG/DNA and Collagen II/DNA ratios, matrix production per chondrocyte was improved ill chitosan Constructs, especially on smaller fibers. The differences between PGA and chitosan are more likely to result from the chemical composition rather than their structural characteristics. Although chitosan appears to promote selleck inhibitor matrix formation, further Studies should be aimed at improving its cell adhesion properties. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. I Biomed Mater Res 93A: 46-55, 2010″
“Objective To compare experiences, attitudes, and beliefs of immigrant and nonimmigrant women presenting for abortion with regard to contraception,

and to identify difficulties involved in accessing contraception in Canada.\n\nDesign A survey of immigrant and nonimmigrant women asking about women’s experiences with and attitudes toward contraceptives and any barriers to contraceptive access they have encountered. Demographic data including ethnicity, country of origin, and length of residence in Canada

were collected.\n\nSetting Two urban abortion clinics.\n\nParticipants Women presenting for first-trimester abortion.\n\nMain outcome measures Type of contraception used when the unwanted pregnancy was conceived, attitudes to contraceptives, and barriers to access of contraceptives.\n\nResults A total of 999 women completed questionnaires during the study period (75.9% response rate); 466 of them (46.6%) were born in Canada. Immigrant women presenting for abortion were less likely to be using hormonal contraception when SNS-032 concentration they got pregnant (12.5% vs 23.5%, P<.001) and had more negative attitudes toward hormonal contraception (62.6% vs 51.6%, P<.003). They reported having more difficulties accessing contraception before the abortion (24.8% vs 15.3%, P<.001) than nonimmigrant women did. About half of all the women expressed fear about intrauterine device use. The longer immigrant women had lived in Canada, the more likely they were to have similar responses to those of Canadian-born women.\n\nConclusion The information provided by this study might be valuable for family doctors and other clinicians to improve contraceptive information resources for immigrants to address existing knowledge gaps and other culturally relevant concerns.

We investigated whether the R53H loss-of-function polymorphism of

We investigated whether the R53H loss-of-function polymorphism of the human tissue kallikrein gene affects renal potassium handling. In a crossover study, 30 R53R homozygous and 10 R53H heterozygous healthy males were randomly assigned to a low-sodium/high-potassium

or a high-sodium/low-potassium diet to modulate tissue kallikrein synthesis. On the seventh day of each diet, participants were studied before and during a 2-h infusion of furosemide to stimulate distal potassium Navitoclax Apoptosis inhibitor secretion. Urinary kallikrein activity was significantly lower in R53H than in R53R subjects on the low-sodium/high-potassium diet and was similarly reduced in both genotypes on high-sodium/low-potassium. Plasma potassium and renal potassium reabsorption were similar in both genotypes on an ad libitum sodium/potassium diet or after 7 days of a high-sodium/low-potassium diet. However, the median plasma potassium was significantly higher after 7 days of low-sodium/high-potassium diet in R53H than in R53R individuals. Urine potassium excretion and plasma aldosterone concentrations were similar. On the low-sodium/high-potassium diet, furosemide-induced decrease in plasma potassium was significantly larger in R53H than in R53R subjects. Thus, impaired tissue kallikrein

stimulation by a low-sodium/high-potassium diet in R53H subjects with partial tissue kallikrein deficiency highlights an inappropriate renal adaptation to potassium load, consistent with experimental data in mice.”
“Patterned films of poly(styrene-co-maleic GW786034 inhibitor anhydride) copolymers were deposited by dip-coating from acetone solutions. A qualitative study of the film morphologies shows LY3023414 order the formation of polymer spheres with smaller diameters at higher amounts of maleic anhydride (MA), and long-fibrous features at higher molecular weights. Upon heating, the films progressively re-assemble with short- and long-fibrous structures as a function of heating time and temperature. In parallel, the film morphologies are quantified by image processing and filtering

techniques. The differential scanning calorimetry confirms the higher glass transition temperatures with increasing amount of MA. The analysis with Raman spectroscopy shows interactions between the molecules in solution and effects of ring-opening (hydrolysis) and ring-closure (formation of MA) during drying of the films. The water contact angles on the patterned films are within the hydrophilic range. They mainly correlate with the amount of MA moieties calculated from spectroscopy, while the roughness parameters have a minor effect. The variations in film patterns illustrate the self-assemble ability of the copolymers and confirm a heterogeneous molecular structure, as previously assumed.”
“BackgroundPrediction of a woman’s risk of a spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD) is a core challenge and an unresolved problem in today’s obstetric practice. The objective of this study was to develop prediction models for spontaneous PTD ( smaller than 37 weeks).

“We aimed at validating the role of genetic variants ident

“We aimed at validating the role of genetic variants identified by a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) as determinants of chronic oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (OXAIPN). Eight polymorphisms (rs10486003, rs2338, rs843748, 5-Fluoracil cost rs797519, rs4936453, rs12023000, rs17140129, and rs6924717) were genotyped in a total of 150 colorectal cancer patients of Caucasian origin receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. The severity grade of chronic OXAIPN was assessed by NCI-CTC criteria and the clinical version of the Total Neuropathy Score((c)) (TNSc (c)). None of the polymorphisms investigated was found associated with grade 2 chronic OXAIPN (NCI-CTC criteria), while a nominal association

emerged for ACYP2 rs843748 when using the TNSc (c) scale (dominant model: odds ratio [OR]: 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10-0.75, P=0.008). In the combined analysis of this results with data of the two previously published studies which assessed Adriamycin chronic OXAIPN by NCI-CTC criteria, evidence suggestive of association with chronic OXAIPN (NCI-CTC criteria) was found for ACYP2 rs843748 (dominant model: OR: 2.40, 95%CI: 1.40-5.24, P=0.027), which, however, did not remain significant after correction for multiple testing (threshold P-value smaller than 0.00625). These findings suggest a minor role of the single nucleotide polymorphisms

(SNPs) investigated as genetic determinants of chronic OXAIPN. These results also highlight the importance of replication studies with meta-analysis for validation of GWAS findings.”
“Genetic variants of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) are known to influence warfarin dose, but the effect of other genes has not been fully elucidated. We genotyped 183 polymorphisms in 29 candidate genes in 1496 Swedish patients starting warfarin treatment, and tested for association with response. CYP2C9*2 and *3 explained 12% (P = 6.63 x 10(-34))

of the variation in warfarin dose, while a single VKORC1 SNP explained 30% (P = 9.82 x 10(-100)). No SNP outside the CYP2C gene cluster and VKORC1 regions was significantly associated with dose after correction for multiple Panobinostat cell line testing. During initiation of therapy, homozygosity for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variant alleles increased the risk of over-anticoagulation, hazard ratios 21.84 (95% CI 9.46; 50.42) and 4.56 (95% CI 2.85; 7.30), respectively. One of 8 patients with CYP2C9*3/*3 (12.5%) experienced severe bleeding during the first month compared with 0.27% of other patients (P = .066). A multiple regression model using the predictors CYP2C9, VKORC1, age, sex, and drug interactions explained 59% of the variance in warfarin dose, and 53% in an independent sample of 181 Swedish individuals. In conclusion, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 significantly influenced warfarin dose and predicted individuals predisposed to unstable anticoagulation.

“Background: Infection with high-risk type human papilloma

“Background: Infection with high-risk type human papilloma viruses (HPVs) is associated with cervical carcinomas and with a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Viral E6 and E7 oncogenes cooperate to achieve cell immortalization by a mechanism that is not yet fully understood. Here, human keratinocytes were immortalized by long-term expression of HPV type 16 E6 or E7 oncoproteins, or both. Proteomic profiling TGF-beta pathway was used to compare expression levels for 741 discrete protein features.\n\nResults: Six replicate measurements were performed for each group using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). The median within-group coefficient

of variation was 19-21%. Significance of between-group differences was tested based on Significance Analysis of Microarray and fold change. Expression of 170 (23%) of the protein features changed significantly in immortalized cells compared to primary keratinocytes. Most of these changes were qualitatively similar in cells immortalized by E6, E7, or E6/7 expression, indicating convergence on a common phenotype, but fifteen proteins (similar to 2%) were outliers in this regulatory pattern. Ten demonstrated opposite regulation in E6- and E7-expressing cells, including the

cell cycle regulator p16(INK4a); the carbohydrate binding protein Galectin-7; two differentially migrating forms of the intermediate filament protein Cytokeratin-7; Citarinostat cost HSPAIA (Hsp70-1); and five unidentified proteins. Five others had a pattern of expression that suggested cooperativity between the co-expressed oncoproteins. Two of these were identified as forms of the small heat shock protein HSPB1 (Hsp27).\n\nConclusion: This large-scale analysis provides a framework for understanding the cooperation between E6 and E7 oncoproteins in HPV-driven carcinogenesis.”
“Specific protein interactions are responsible for most biological functions. Distinguishing selleck screening library Functionally Linked Interfaces of Proteins (FLIPs), from Functionally uncorrelated

Contacts (FunCs), is therefore important to characterizing these interactions. To achieve this goal, we have created a database of protein structures called FLIPdb, containing proteins belonging to various functional sub-categories. Here, we use geometric features coupled with Kortemme and Baker’s computational alanine scanning method to calculate the energetic sensitivity of each amino acid at the interface to substitution, identify hotspots, and identify other factors that may contribute towards an interface being FLIP or FunC. Using Principal Component Analysis and K-means clustering on a training set of 160 interfaces, we could distinguish FLIPs from FunCs with an accuracy of 76%. When these methods were applied to two test sets of 18 and 170 interfaces, we achieved similar accuracies of 78% and 80%.