Similar, significant median nerve regeneration was observed in th

Similar, significant median nerve regeneration was observed in the EES-treated and ATS-treated groups, relative to controls. The EES and ATS surgical procedures methods demonstrated important similar results considering functional and molecular biology analysis of the median nerve injury. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery 2011. “
“It is difficult for most plastic and orthopaedic surgeons to treat nerve dysfunction related to neural adhesion because the pathophysiology and suitable treatment

have not been clarified. In the current report, we describe our experience of surgical treatment for adhesive ulnar neuropathy. A 58-year-old male complained of pain radiating to the ulnar nerve-innervated area during elbow and wrist motion caused by adhesive ulnar neuropathy after complex open trauma of the elbow joint. The patient obtained a good clinical outcome check details by surgical neurolysis of the ulnar nerve combined with a brachial artery perforator-based propeller flap to cover the soft tissue defect after resection of the scar tissue and to prevent readhesion of the ulnar nerve. This flap may be a useful option for ulnar nerve coverage after neurolysis without microvascular anastomosis in specific cases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2014. “
“Background: selleck chemicals The deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) is rarely

used as a perforator flap, despite a clear

clinical need for thin osteocutaneous flaps, particularly in head and neck reconstruction. The poor adoption of such a flap is largely due to a poor understanding mafosfamide of the perforators of the DCIA, despite recent publications demonstrating suitable vascular anatomy of the DCIA perforators, particularly evident with the use of preoperative computed tomographic angiography (CTA). We have applied this method of peroperative imaging to successfully select those patients suitable for the DCIA perforator flap and use it clinically. Methods: We present a case series of patients who underwent DCIA perforator flap reconstruction following preoperative planning with CTA. Imaging findings, clinical course, and outcomes are presented. Results: Six out of seven patients planned for DCIA perforator flap reconstruction underwent a successful DCIA perforator flap, with imaging findings confirmed at operation, and without any flap loss, hernia, or other significant flap-related morbidities. Because of abberent anatomy and change in defect following excision of pathology, one patient was converted to a free fibular flap. Conclusion: With preoperative CTA planning, the DCIA perforator flap is a versatile and feasible flap for reconstruction of the mandible and extremities. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2011.

, 1990; Shimizu et al , 1991) APS have been reported to have pro

, 1990; Shimizu et al., 1991). APS have been reported to have profound immunological functions such as suppressing tumor growth, improving humoral Nutlin-3a chemical structure and cellular immunity, and regulating the expression of cytokines (Li et al., 2008; Chen et al., 2010). In addition, APS have been shown to enhance the immune response in immunosuppressed mice (Panhj, 1977). Furthermore, evidence has shown that APS are able to modulate mature of dendritic cells (Shao et al., 2006). However, whether

APS as adjuvant influence the host immune response in the context of HBV subunit vaccines remains unclear. Here we explored the adjuvant effect of APS on HBV subunit vaccine and its mechanism of action in immunized mice. Both humoral and cellular immune responses were enhanced by coadministration of APS. Notably, APS can activate the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway and inhibit negative regulators such transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and regulatory T cells (Treg cells). This study provides evidence that APS as an adjuvant can efficiently improve the immunogenicity of HBV subunit vaccines via the activation of the innate immune response and inhibition of negative GSK2126458 manufacturer signals. Astragalus polysaccharide was bought from Nuowei Pharmaceutical Company Limited (Tianjin, China). The recombinant

HBsAg (rHBsAg) expressed in CHO cells and the alum adjuvant was kindly provided by North China Pharmaceutical Group Corporation (NCPC, Hebei, China) at 10 μg mL−1. The HBsAg-derived peptides S208–215 (ILSPFLPL; H-2Kb-restricted) were Rapamycin cost synthesized by GL Biochem Co., Ltd (Shanghai, China). Fluorescent-labeled antimouse monoclonal antibodies, CD8-PE, CD4-PE, IL-4-PE, CD4-FITC, IL-2-FITC and IFN-γ-FITC, were obtained from eBiosciences (San Diego, CA). CFSE was purchased from Fanbo Biochemicals (Beijing, China). Adult female BALB/c

mice (6–8 weeks old) were purchased from West China Laboratory Animal Center (Chengdu, China) and kept under standard pathogen-free conditions. Mice were randomly divided into five groups (n = 7 each), and immunized intramuscularly on days 0 and 14 with different vaccine formulations (Ragupathi et al., 2008): (1) 1 μg rHBsAg alone, (2) 1 μg rHBsAg plus 500 μg APS, (3) 1 μg rHBsAg plus 10 μg mL−1 alum, (4) 500 μg APS alone and (5) phosphate-buffered saline. The serum samples were collected on day 7 after the second immunization and the anti-HBsAg-specific antibodies were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions (SIICKinghaw Biotech Co. Ltd, Beijing, China). The international unit of total anti-HBsAg antibody was calculated as previously described (Zou et al., 2010). Single lymphocyte suspension was prepared from the spleens of mice on day 7 after the second immunization. Cells in RPMI-1640 with 5% fetal bovine serum were incubated in 96-well plates at 37°C with 5% CO2, and stimulated for 48 h.

To identify TBE virus-endemic areas, it is effective to conduct a

To identify TBE virus-endemic areas, it is effective to conduct an epizootiological survey of wild rodents. The neutralizing test can be used for serological diagnosis of wild rodents, but it is time consuming and uses hazardous live viruses that require a high-level Selleck Cisplatin biosafety facility. It is also known that non-infected wild rodents sometime indicated low neutralization antibody titers by the neutralization test. Therefore, a diagnosis which is more convenient for the epizootiological survey of wild rodents is required. In this study, we tried to develop ELISAs using two recombinant antigens

in the serological diagnosis of rodents for the first time. Domain III of the E protein was known to have the neutralizing epitopes (11) and was used for the serological diagnosis in several flaviviruses (13, 14). In this study, the recombinant domain III of the E protein was applied to the diagnosis ELISA for wild rodents. The EdIII-ELISA was shown to

have a relatively high sensitivity (27/35, 77.1%) and specificity (68/85, 80.0%) as compared with the neutralization test when the cut-off value for the ELISA was set at 0.64 (Fig. 2). Eight of 35 ACP-196 neutralization test-positive samples were negative in the EdIII-ELISA (Table 1). Several false-positive samples showed high reactivity to the negative control antigens, NusA (data not shown). In another study it was reported that a neutralizing response to West Nile virus in naturally infected horses was induced with epitopes within not only EdIII, but also other domains (25). It was suggested that these false-negatives were due to the lack of other domains and the C1GALT1 conformational structure of the EdIII expressed in E. coli, and to the presence of antibodies that have high reactivity to NusA -Tag protein. In the flavivirus, co-expression of prM and E proteins in mammalian cells leads to the secretion of SPs to culture medium (19, 26, 27). The SPs have no viral

genome and do not produce progeny virus, and they have similar antigenicity and immunogenicity to the native virus. Therefore, SPs have been developed as a safe and useful alternative for live viruses as the antigen for serological diagnosis tests and vaccines (18, 20, 28, 29). In this study, the SPs were used as the antigens in ELISA to detect TBE virus-infected rodents. The SP-ELISA was shown to have a very high sensitivity (32/35, 91.4%) and specificity (85/85, 100%) as compared with the neutralization test when the cut-off value for the ELISA was set at a 0.089 (Fig. 4). In a recent study, it was reported that the antigenic structures of E proteins were disturbed when the ELISA plate was coated directly with the viral particles as solid-phase antigens (30). To avoid this, our SP-ELISA uses capture antibodies to coat the SP-antigen on the plate. And unlike infectious virions, the SPs do not require formalin inactivation, which affects the reactivity of several epitopes of the E proteins (31).

In addition, FEZ1 plays a role in cell polarization and axonal in

In addition, FEZ1 plays a role in cell polarization and axonal initiation [24]. FEZ1 has been shown to interact with FDA-approved Drug Library research buy tubulin and kinesin motor proteins and to control the movement of mitochondria within the growing neurites of PC12 cells stimulated by nerve growth factor [25]. In rats, FEZ1 mRNA is abundantly expressed in early stages of the developing brain at the onset of neurogenesis [26]. In particular, abundant FEZ1 expression is found in neurones of the olfactory bulb, cortex and hippocampus of the adult rat brain but not in oligodendrocytes or astrocytes [27]. However, our recent work has shown that FEZ1 expression measured by microarray analysis was differentially expressed in two types of in vitro neonatal

astrocytes and has demonstrated that in astrocytes, FEZ1 protein levels were not lower than FEZ1 levels in neurones [28]. Despite its restricted expression

in the brain, new and intriguing roles for FEZ1 are continually revealed, as recent evidence implicates astrocytic FEZ1 expression in mood stabilization [29]. Furthermore, other evidence shows that FEZ1 may regulate dopaminergic neurone differentiation and dopamine release [30-32]. Collectively, these lines of evidence suggest a role for FEZ1 in PD. In this study, 6-Hydroxydopamine Hydrobromide (6-OHDA) was unilaterally injected in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) of rats to induce the progressive pathological processes that model PD, as 6-OHDA selectively kills dopaminergic neurones. Next, FEZ1 expression was evaluated AZD1208 manufacturer in rat striatum and substantia nigra after 6-OHDA injection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis. FEZ1 localization in neuronal

or glial populations was examined by immunohistochemistry. Adult Sprague–Dawley (SD) male rats weighing 220–250 g (Experimental Animal Center of Soochow University, Suzhou, China) were used in all experiments. Animals were allowed to acclimate for 1 week and were Teicoplanin housed in a temperature-controlled colony room under a 12:12-h light–dark cycle with free access to food and water. Seventy rats were used: 58 were subjected to a 6-OHDA injection, and 12 were subjected to a sham operation. The experimental procedures were approved by Soochow University for ethics of experiments on animals. Male SD rats were anaesthetized with Chloral hydrate (400 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). After anaesthesia, the animals were placed in a stereotaxic apparatus (Stoelting, Wisconsin, WI, USA). 6-OHDA (10 μg of 6-OHDA hydrochloride in 5 μl of 0.02% ascorbic acid saline solution) was unilaterally injected in the MFB with a Hamilton syringe (0.46 mm in diameter) at a rate of 0.5 μl/min, and the needle was left in the place for 5 min after the injection. MFB injections of 5 μg of 6-OHDA per injection site were made at two injection sites relative to bregma, according to the rat brain atlas of Paxinos and Watson: AP, −1.8 mm; ML, −2.5 mm; DV, −8.0 mm, and AP, −1.8 mm; ML, −2.5 mm; DV, −7.5 mm [33].

In one condition, different features on different parts of the ob

In one condition, different features on different parts of the object were highlighted for infants Sotrastaurin purchase in the reception and the experimental rooms. In the other condition, infants’ attention was drawn to the object in both locations by verbal and gestural means without a single, specific feature being highlighted. Such manipulations served to enhance infants’ representation of the object without helping them track the object’s identity across its dislocations. If infants’ difficulty responding to absent reference is caused by their confusion about object identity, they should only find the object in the condition in which the same feature is highlighted in both rooms. On the other

hand, if infants simply need a stronger and richer representation of the target object, they should locate the hidden object in all three conditions. Fifty-six 12-month-olds participated

(M = 12 months 15 days; range 11 months 23 days—12 months 29 days; 28 girls). Seven additional infants were omitted because of parental interference (2), failure to attend to the target objects (2), lost videotape (2), and sibling interference (1). Participants were primarily Caucasian and from middle-class families. They were recruited from a city area by phone from a database of interested families and were full-term at birth, normally developing and hearing, with English as their primary language. Two ottomans that were identical in shape and size (one brown, one black) were used as hiding locations. Target objects were two stuffed animals from the laboratory. One stuffed animal (a pig) was shown to infants before the GSK2118436 concentration experiment and thus was familiar when the experiment started. The other stuffed animal (a dog) was not shown to infants before the experiment and thus was new when the experiment

started. Infants in a previous study using the same test objects were equally likely to respond to the dog and pig. The toy pig had two characteristic features. First, there were yellow threads on the side that had remained after a label was cut off. Second, yellow threads were attached to the back of the neck for the purposes of the study. During the experiment, the researcher directed infants’ Niclosamide attention to these features in different conditions. Every infant participated in a new toy and familiar toy condition. The familiar toy condition will be described first. There were three between-subjects variants of the familiar toy condition: identifying feature, nonidentifying feature, and no feature. The three conditions varied according to which feature of the familiar object the experimenter highlighted during familiarization. The familiar toy was introduced to infants in a familiarization phase. This phase was held in the reception room and started after infants were acquainted with the experimenter and felt comfortable. During familiarization, the experimenter and baby played with the pig for 3–4 min.

S6b–e) In addition, B cell subsets developing in the NSG–BLT mic

S6b–e). In addition, B cell subsets developing in the NSG–BLT mice were compared to the populations in human blood. As described previously, there are higher selleck levels of immature and transitional B cells in the blood of NSG–BLT mice compared

to humans [37]. Together, these results suggest that irradiation is not necessary for B cell development but is required to obtain optimal number of B cells and for Ig production. We next evaluated the development of human innate immune cells in the BLT model established with or without irradiation conditioning (Supporting information, Fig. S7). The gating strategy used to define the human innate immune subsets is shown in Supporting information, Fig. S7a. At 16 weeks post-implant the development of human monocyte/macrophage (CD14+/CD33+), myeloid dendritic cells (mDC, CD11c+/CD33+) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC, CD123+/CD33+)

was assessed in the blood, spleen and bone marrow (Supporting information, Fig. S7b–d). Significantly higher percentages of human monocyte/macrophage were detected in the blood of NSG–BLT mice that had received irradiation compared to non-irradiated NSG–BLT mice, and there was a trend towards increased levels in the spleen and bone marrow, although these differences Roxadustat molecular weight were not significant (Supporting information, Fig. S7b). The levels of mDC (Supporting information, Fig. S7c) and pDC (Supporting information, Fig. S7d) were similar in irradiated and

non-irradiated NSG–BLT mice. In addition, innate cell subsets developing in the NSG–BLT mice were comparable to the populations in human blood. Together, these results suggest that Methisazone irradiation conditioning of the recipient slightly enhances human macrophage development in NSG–BLT mice but is not necessary for mDC or pDC development. The standard implantation site for thymic and liver fragments in the BLT model is within the subcapsular space of the kidney. However, this procedure is considered survival surgery for the mice and is labour-intensive. As an alternative to the renal capsule, we tested whether implantation of thymic and liver fragments subcutaneously would support high levels of T cell development. NSG mice were irradiated with 200 cGy, implanted with 1 mm3 fragments of human fetal thymus and liver either in the renal subcapsular space or subcutaneously, and then injected i.v. with human HSC derived from the fetal liver. At 18 weeks post-implant the mice were evaluated for total human cell chimerism (CD45+ cells), for human T cell development (CD3+ cells) and for human B cell development (CD20+) in the blood and spleen (Fig. 4a–c). No significant differences were detected for the percentage of CD45+ cells in the blood and spleen (Fig.

Indeed, morphological examination of the mucosa shows epithelial

Indeed, morphological examination of the mucosa shows epithelial cells in various states of degradation in the vicinity of the schistosome egg (56). Alternatively, the diminished secretion could result from adaptation of the ileal mucosa to the infection. Such an adaptive response has been described for N. brasiliensis-infected rats 5-Fluoracil concentration and is directed by a neurally mediated mechanism possibly aimed at preventing excessive fluid loss (57). Likewise, in T. spiralis infected ferrets,

basal and stimulated jejunal secretions were attenuated during the enteric stage of infection (58). In these models, the reduced secretion was accompanied by a shift from cholinergic to noncholinergic regulation of secretion, which was associated with an increase in substance P immunoreactivity within

the mucosa. Interestingly, in this context, S. mansoni infection in the mouse results in increased immunoreactivity for the neuropeptide CGRP in close apposition to MMC within the ileum (6,7). Although the role of CGRP in S. mansoni infection remains to be elucidated it is likely that CGRP is involved in neuro-immune interactions between local primary afferent nerve fibres and mast cells (7). Extrapolation of these murine data to man involves a large number of uncertain assumptions, partly arising out of the lack of adequate human data [for reviews see (59,60)] but also since schistosome infection in mice differs in many respects

from that in humans (60). In both human and murine, however, the majority of pathology develops H 89 ic50 at the sites of maximal accumulation of eggs: the intestine and the liver (59,60). Gastrointestinal schistosomiasis is characterized by chronic abdominal pain and discomfort, loss of appetite and diarrhoea that commonly contains occult blood (60). The present results show that in mice, in addition to the previously described impairment of sugar and fluid transport (61), the basal secretion and the maximal secretory capacity of the ileal epithelium are severely reduced 8 weeks after schistosome infection. Ribonucleotide reductase If and how this finding relates to the patient symptoms cannot be inferred at present, but a derangement of fluid transport may explain some of these. The reported impairment of the mucosal barrier in the murine ileum suggests that translocation of bacteria from the gut lumen to extra-intestinal sites (62) might be increased during schistosomiasis. At present, only limited information is available on the effects of schistosomiasis on murine intestinal function (63). The present results suggest, however, that use of murine models may be of importance for the dissection of the intestinal pathologies. In summary, in S. mansoni-infected mice, the intestinal barrier is severely impaired both in WT and in Mcpt-1−/− mice and egg excretion takes place independently of mMCP-1.

RNA samples were resuspended in diethylpyrocarbonate-treated wate

RNA samples were resuspended in diethylpyrocarbonate-treated water and stored at −70 °C. The RNA concentration was determined

from the optical density using a micro-volume spectrophotometer (Nanodrop 1000, Nanodrop Technologies LLC, Wilmington, NC, USA). Real-time PCR reactions.  Reverse transcription total RNA was DNase treated (Turbo DNA-frees, Ambion Inc., Austin, TX, USA), and 1 μg was used for cDNA synthesis. The reaction was carried out using the First-Strand cDNA synthesis kit (Fermentas, Glen Burnie, MD, USA), following the manufacturer’s recommendations. Primer design.  Primers were designed using the Primer RO4929097 order Express 3.0 probe design software (Applied Biosystem, Foster City, CA, USA). The primer sequences are presented in Table 1. PCR Reactions.  Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed in the 7300 Real Time PCR (Applied Biosystem) using the SYBR Green PCR Master Mix (Fermentas). The reaction product was quantified with the Relative Quantification tool, using GAPDH as the reference

gene. Negative controls with SYBR Green PCR Master Mix and water were performed for all reactions. Statistical analysis.  The statistical analysis was performed using a software program (GraphPad Prism 4.0, La Jolla, CA, USA). Data were first examined for normality by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov see more test and, since the data achieved normality, parametric method was employed. The percentages of sites with visible plaque accumulation, BoP, SUP, the means PD, CAL were

computed for all teeth. Clinical parameters, mRNA data, the levels of cytokines and IgA were averaged into both groups. The differences in clinical parameters, age, mRNA levels, IgA, and cytokines levels between groups were compared using Student’s t-test. The level of significance was set at 5%. Table 2 summarizes the demographic characteristics and the clinical parameters of the study population. There Atorvastatin were no differences in the mean age and gender distribution between groups (p > 0.05). As expected, the levels of all periodontal parameters were lower in the control group when compared to chronic periodontitis group considering full-mouth and the teeth selected for gingival biopsies levels (P < 0.05). Salivary levels of antibody were normalized by comparing the IgA antibody in ELISA to the total protein (Bradford method) found in the saliva. The mean level of total protein found in the saliva of the periodontal disease individuals was 1471.60 ± 438.09 μg/ml, and from healthy individuals was 1056.79 ± 381.13 μg/ml. The normalized mean levels of IgA (pg/ml) in total saliva are presented in Figure 1. The total IgA antibody levels were significantly higher in the chronic periodontitis group compared to periodontally healthy ones (P < 0.05). As observed in Fig. 2A, the gingival mRNA levels for IL-21 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the chronic periodontitis group when compared to the healthy group.

However, the presence and persistence of MMPs within the CSF are

However, the presence and persistence of MMPs within the CSF are characteristic of inflammation within the brain. The combined analyses of MMPs, TIMPs as well as cytokines are necessary to understand the pathogenesis of VL and to verify the exact role of MMPs in this disease. These issues are now the focus of our research group. This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics and Animal Welfare Committee (CEEA – Comissão de Ética e Experimentação Animal, UNESP, process number 05/06). This work was supported

by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP, Grant number 05/60132). G. D. Melo was financed by FAPESP scientific initiation scholarship (Grant number 06/56724-3), SRT1720 in vivo as well as M. S. Souza (Grant number 08/57637-2). None of the authors of this paper has a financial or personal relationship with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence or bias the content of the paper. “
“The present study evaluated the effect of nasally given Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 on the immunocoagulative response during pneumococcal infection in immunocompetent mice. In addition, we aimed to gain insight into the mechanism involved in the immunomodulatory effect of the L. rhamnosus CRL1505 strain by evaluating the role of TLR2. Results showed that nasally given L. rhamnosus CRL1505 effectively regulates inflammation

and hemostatic alterations during the pneumococcal infection. Immunobiotic Ferroptosis inhibitor clinical trial treatment significantly reduced permeability of the bronchoalveolar–capillary barrier, and

general cytotoxicity, decreasing lung tissue damage. The CRL1505 strain improved the production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10 after pneumococcal challenge. In addition, increased TM and TF expressions were found in lungs of L. rhamnosus CRL1505-treated mice. Moreover, we demonstrated, for the first time, that Oxalosuccinic acid the TLR2 signaling pathway has a role in the induction of IFN-γ and IL-10 and in the reduction of TF. The results also allow us to speculate that a PRR, other than TLR2, may mediate the immunobiotic activity of L. rhamnosus CRL1505 and could explain changes in TNF-α and TM. “
“Fourth Medical Department of Medicine, Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria AFFiRiS AG, Karl-Farkas-Gasse 22, 1030 Vienna, Austria Baxter Innovations GmbH, Wagramerstrasse 17-19, 1220 Vienna, Austria The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2 (hnRNP-A2) has been described as an important autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) since it is targeted by autoantibodies, autoreactive T cells, and is aberrantly expressed in synovial cells in patients. To identify hnRNP-A2-specific T-cell epitopes possibly associated with pathogenicity, we used an innovative approach. We first scanned 280 overlapping hnRNP-A2 peptides for binding to the RA-associated class II molecules HLA-DR4 and HLA-DR1, leading to a comprehensive selection of binders.

Analysis of blood cells from injected mice showed that GA associa

Analysis of blood cells from injected mice showed that GA associated with a mononuclear CD11bhi cell population (Fig. 1A, left panels). This association was specific for GA, because Alexa488-OVA

did not DMXAA bind to these cells. Alexa488 staining on CD11bhi cells was also observed when GA-Alexa488 was injected into MHC class II–deficient mice (Fig. 1A, right panels), showing that MHC class II was not necessary for targeting of GA to these cells in vivo. Further characterization of the cell surface markers on GA+ cells from both wild-type and MHC class II–deficient mice identified them as F4/80lo/Ly6G−, consistent with a monocyte phenotype (Fig. 1B and data not shown). GA-Alexa488+ monocytes were observed within 20 min of GA administration, and >95% monocytes were GA+ after 3–6 h (Fig. 1C). Taken together, our findings showed that GA rapidly and specifically targets blood monocytes after intravenous administration. Previous work in our group has shown that naïve blood CD11bhi F4/80lo Ly6G− cells exhibit the capacity to suppress T cell proliferation in vitro [15]. In this study,

co-culture with blood monocytes from naïve mice also suppressed T cells stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28-coated selleck chemicals llc beads, and this effect was enhanced in monocytes isolated from mice that had been treated with GA (Fig. 2A). GA-treated monocytes also exhibited enhanced suppression of antigen-specific proliferation of CD4 T cells Lck (Fig. 2B). To determine whether intravenous GA treatment could suppress T cell proliferation in vivo, CFSE-labelled, MOG-specific TCR transgenic CD4 T cells were adoptively transferred into

CD45.1+ congenic mice. T cells were transferred in the presence of either MOG35–55 alone or MOG35–55 and GA, and 2–4 days later, in vivo T cell proliferation was measured by flow cytometry. As shown in Fig. 2C, in vivo T cell proliferation was reduced in GA-treated mice in comparison with mice injected with MOG35–55 alone. Taken together, these findings showed that intravenous GA treatment greatly delayed T cell proliferation in vivo, which is likely due to the enhanced capability of blood monocytes to suppress antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Subcutaneous administration of GA is commonly used for MS treatment and has been shown to suppress EAE [7]. To address the question of whether suppression of pathogenic T cell proliferation by monocytes was also contributing to the efficacy of subcutaneous GA treatment, we adopted a co-immunization model of EAE treatment modified from Gilgun-Sherki et al. [22]. Mice were injected subcutaneously with a CFA emulsion containing combinations of the disease-causing MOG35–55 peptide and GA. To investigate antigen-specific T cell expansion, CFSE-labelled MOG-specific TCR transgenic cells were adoptively transferred into congenic mice, and the recipients immunized with CFA+MOG35–55 peptide with or without GA. As shown in Fig.