At high temperature, the fracture

At high temperature, the fracture Autophagy inhibitor locus shows an elliptical arc, where the fracture

toughness for pure mode II is smaller than that for mode I. An empirical fracture criterion based on the time-temperature dependence of the resin is proposed, and the proposed method successfully predicts the fracture toughness under various conditions of the temperature, time, and mode mixity. The crack initiation angles, on the other hand, are almost consistent regardless of the temperature, which agree with the maximum hoop stress theory. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 2301-2309, 2011″
“Purpose: To develop a system to facilitate the retrieval of radiologic images that contain similar-appearing lesions and to perform a preliminary evaluation of this system with a database of computed tomographic (CT) images of the liver and an external standard of image similarity.

Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for retrospective analysis of deidentified patient images. Thereafter, 30 portal venous phase CT images of the liver exhibiting one of three types of liver lesions (13 cysts, seven hemangiomas, 10 metastases) were HIF activation selected. A radiologist used a controlled lexicon and a tool developed for complete and standardized description of lesions to identify and annotate each lesion with semantic features.

In addition, this software automatically computed image features on the basis of image texture and boundary sharpness. Semantic and computer-generated features were weighted

and combined into a feature vector representing each image. An independent reference standard was created for pairwise image similarity. This was used in a leave-one-out cross-validation to train weights that optimized the rankings of images in the database in terms of similarity to query images. Performance was evaluated by using precision-recall curves and normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCG), a common measure for the usefulness of information retrieval.

Results: When used individually, groups of semantic, texture, and boundary features resulted LBH589 supplier in various levels of performance in retrieving relevant lesions. However, combining all features produced the best overall results. Mean precision was greater than 90% at all values of recall, and mean, best, and worst case retrieval accuracy was greater than 95%, 100%, and greater than 78%, respectively, with NDCG.

Conclusion: Preliminary assessment of this approach shows excellent retrieval results for three types of liver lesions visible on portal venous CT images, warranting continued development and validation in a larger and more comprehensive database.”
“P>Cotton is an important cash crop worldwide, and is a significant source of fiber, feed, foodstuff, oil and biofuel products.

The strain identified as Bacillus sp AF-666, was found to degrad

The strain identified as Bacillus sp. AF-666, was found to degrade polyisoprene rubber, both on basal agar plates (latex overlay) as well as in liquid medium. Qualitative analysis of degradation was done through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. SEM showed changes in surface morphology, like appearance of pits and cracks, and marked difference in transmittance spectra of test and control due to changes in the functional groups, was detected through FTIR. CO2 evolution as a result of rubber degradation, was calculated gravimetrically by Sturm Test.

About 4.43 g/1 of CO2 was produced in case of test, whereas, 1.57 g/1 in case of control. The viable number of cells (CFU/ml) was also higher in test than in control. Present study may provide an opportunity for further studies on the applications of buy P005091 biotechnological ICG-001 processes as a tool for rubber waste management.”

play important roles in many cellular and biological functions via the regulation of mRNA target translation. In the cardiovascular field, microRNAs are now acknowledged as fundamental in regulating the expression of genes that governs physiological and pathological myocardial adaptation to stress. Here, we review recent progress in the understanding of microRNA functions and their involvement in heart disease. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009; 2: 402-408.)”
“Background: The High-Dimensional Propensity Score (hd-PS) Compound Library supplier algorithm can select and adjust for baseline confounders of treatment-outcome associations in pharmacoepidemiologic studies that use healthcare claims data. How hd-PS performance is affected by aggregating medications or medical diagnoses has not been assessed.

Methods: We evaluated the effects of aggregating medications or diagnoses on hd-PS performance in an empirical example using resampled cohorts

with small sample size, rare outcome incidence, or low exposure prevalence. In a cohort study comparing the risk of upper gastrointestinal complications in celecoxib or traditional NSAIDs (diclofenac, ibuprofen) initiators with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, we (1) aggregated medications and International Classification of Diseases-9 (ICD-9) diagnoses into hierarchies of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification (ATC) and the Clinical Classification Software (CCS), respectively, and (2) sampled the full cohort using techniques validated by simulations to create 9,600 samples to compare 16 aggregation scenarios across 50% and 20% samples with varying outcome incidence and exposure prevalence. We applied hd-PS to estimate relative risks (RR) using 5 dimensions, predefined confounders, <= 500 hd-PS covariates, and propensity score deciles.

However, it has been reported that low synovial infiltration of B

However, it has been reported that low synovial infiltration of B cells and complete B-cell depletion after the first rituximab infusion are predictors of good response to this agent.”
“Purpose: To improve the hydrophobicity of diosmetin, the complex of diosmetin and lecithin was prepared and its physicochemical properties

were characterized in this study.

Methods: The complex of diosmetin and lecithin was prepared by solvent method. The physicochemical properties of the complex were investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV/Vis), infrared spectrometry (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry MAPK inhibitor (DSC) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD).

Results: Based on UV and IR analysis, there was no BAY 80-6946 molecular weight significant difference between the physical mixture and the complex while SEM showed that diosmetin in the complex did not present a crystal appearance but rather was dispersed in lecithin. DSC thermograms of the complex mainly showed that the presence of lecithin caused the characteristic endothermal peaks of diosmetin to disappear while x-diffractograms showed that the crystalline peaks of diosmetin was absent in the complex.

Conclusion: The complex is held together by non-covalent-bond, and thus a new compound was not formed. Diosmetin in the complex is molecularly dispersed in the lecithin matrix.”
“This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence

and differences of healthy lifestyles among children and adolescents differing in blood pressure status.

A cross-sectional study analyzed 5,270 children and adolescents ages 5-18 years. Anthropometric measurements and information on six healthy lifestyles (normal body mass index [BMI], appropriate physical activity, sufficient sleep, appropriate breakfast, no smoking, and no alcohol use) were collected by well-trained personnel.

The prevalence of healthy lifestyles was relatively low. Only 22.4% ALK inhibitor of the study participants had all

six healthy lifestyle characteristics. The participants with prehypertension were less likely to have a normal BMI (odds ratio [OR] 0.362; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.292-0.449) or to be nonsmokers (OR 0.793; 95% CI 0.64-0.982) than those with normal blood pressure. Overall, the prehypertensive participants had a lower likelihood of having four to six (especially all 6) of the healthy lifestyles (OR 0.688; 95% CI 0.561-0.844) than their normotensive counterparts. In addition, some socioeconomic factors, such as family income, had an impact on healthy life habits.

Among children and adolescents, poor prehypertensive status was associated with a low likelihood of healthy lifestyles. Evaluation of multiple healthy lifestyles as a whole should receive more attention for better prevention and control of high blood pressure.”
“Golimumab is a human anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) monoclonal antibody that acts principally by targeting and neutralizing TNF to prevent inflammation and destruction of cartilage and bone.

Seventeen (56 6%) were women Age, BMI, and duration of diabetes

Seventeen (56.6%) were women. Age, BMI, and duration of diabetes were 48 +/- 9 years, 33.7 +/- 1.2 kg/m(2), 4 +/- 2.9 years, respectively. No mortality AP24534 was observed. No conversion/reoperation was needed. Average length of stay was 3.2 +/- 0.9 days. Early and late postoperative complications were observed in five (16.6%) and five (16.6%) patients, respectively. Twelve months after surgery, remission was observed in 25 of 30 patients (83.3%). After 2 years, remission was achieved in 13 of 20 patients (65%), and hemoglobin A1c decreased from 8.1 +/- 1.8% to 5.9 +/- 1.1% and

homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance from 5.7 +/- 3.2 to 1.9 +/- 0.8 after 12 months. RYGB is a safe and effective procedure to induce T2DM remission in otherwise selleck compound not eligible patients for bariatric surgery. Evidence from prospective studies is needed to validate this approach.”
“Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the function of newborn nurses given at newborn feeding in the newborn units of public hospitals in Konya, Turkey, besides it was also to determine the effect of nurses which had short-term training, aka education, in practice and in theory.

Methods. This was an experimental study conducted with a total of 50 newborn nurses between 15 September 2004 and 30 February 2005. In collecting the data, a survey sheet including the demographic characteristics

of newborn nurses and their knowledge on newborn feeding was applied, along with another remark form that shows clinical practices about newborn feeding.

Results. Considering the nurses, their knowledge mean score ‘after education (AE)’ was calculated to be 72.4 +/- 10.4, which

was significantly higher than that of ‘before education (BE)’, which was 58.0 +/- 9.3, (p < 0.05). Likewise, the implementation mean score of these nurses AE (57.2 +/- 4.9) was also found higher than the mean score BE (54.4 +/- 5.0) (p < 0.05). There were statistically significant differences in the posteducation mean scores of nurses for the number of children they had, and for the hospital they work.

Conclusion. In this study, it was determined that the nurses had knowledge deficits about newborn feeding both in theory and practice, but after a short educational program on newborn feeding their theoretical BIIB057 supplier and practical knowledge had shown increases.”
“The influence of creatine (Cr) supplementation on cortical and trabecular bone from ovariectomized rats was studied using FT-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of organic-phase Raman bands was compared to mineral phase ones. Twenty-one female Wistar rats aged 3 months were divided into three groups (n = 7 per group): ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized treated with creatine (CRE) and sham-operated (SHAM) groups. Creatine supplementation (300 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was provided for 8 weeks, starting 12 weeks after ovariectomy.

In some cases, the viscosity and/or viscoelastic functions even i

In some cases, the viscosity and/or viscoelastic functions even increase with temperature, especially in formulations with residual free NCO groups. Several experimental flow problems, such as fracture and sample expelling from the measuring tool, are generally found, more frequently in formulations with high NCO content. (C) Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., J Appl Polym Sci 118: 693-704, 2010″
“Low temperature cathodo- and photoluminescence has been performed on nonpolar a-plane GaN films grown using

epitaxial lateral overgrowth. In films overgrown at a low V-III ratio, the emission spectrum is dominated by “”yellow”" and “”blue”" luminescence bands, attributed to recombination at point defects or impurities. The intensity of this emission is observed to decrease steadily across the window region along the -c direction, possibly due to asymmetric diffusion of a point defect/impurity species. When overgrown at a higher V-III ratio, the near band edge and basal-plane stacking DNA Damage inhibitor fault emission intensity increases by orders of magnitude and a donor-acceptor pair band is observed. Using monochromatic cathodoluminescence

imaging, the various emission features are correlated with the microstructure of the film. In particular, the peak energy of the basal-plane stacking fault emission is seen to be blueshifted by similar to 15 meV in the wing relative to the window region, which may be related to the different strain states in the respective regions. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3460641]“
“The recent arrival in Northern and Western (NW) Europe of bluetongue virus (BTV), which causes the ruminant disease ‘bluetongue’, has raised the profile of this vector-borne ruminant disease and sparked discussions on the reasons for its sudden emergence so far north. This expansion has not happened in isolation and the disease has been expanding into Southern and Eastern Europe for the last decade. This

shifting disease distribution is being facilitated by a number of different introduction mechanisms including the movement of infected livestock, the passive movement of infected Culicoides on the wind and, in NW Europe, an unknown route of introduction. The expansion of BTV in Europe has forced a re-evaluation BMS-777607 in vivo of the importance of Palaearctic Culicoides species in transmission, as well as the importance of secondary transmission routes, such as transplacental transmission, in facilitating the persistence of the virus. The current European outbreak of BTV-8 is believed to have caused greater economic damage than any previous single-serotype outbreak. Although attempts are being made to improve the capacity of European countries to cope with future BTV incursions, the options available are limited by a lack of basic entomological data and limited virological surveillance.

The genetic effect of the LOC387715/ARMS2 rs10490924 G>T polym

The genetic effect of the LOC387715/ARMS2 rs10490924 G>T polymorphism on PCV was assessed by calculating pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We found that elevated PCV risk was significantly associated with the GG genotype (GG vs TT, OR = 4.23, 95%CI = 3.53-5.06), and heterozygous genotype TG appeared to have a minor effect on PCV risk (TG vs TT, OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.26-1.71). Patients with the T allele were 2.09 times more likely to have PCV than those with the G allele (95% CI = 1.906-2.288). A further subgroup

analysis by ages also showed that the genetic effect of the LOC387715/ARMS2 rs10490924 G>T polymorphism on PCV is stronger among patients with mean age <73 years. Our meta-analysis strengthened the evidence that the LOC387715/ARMS2 rs10490924 G>T polymorphism plays an important

role in PCV susceptibility.”
“Dynamic physical exercise (walking, swimming, and so on) is an important component click here of lifestyle changes to reduce blood pressure; however, many individuals are unwilling or unable to adopt this lifestyle change. Isometric exercise has not traditionally been recommended as an alternative to dynamic exercise and has not been well studied. A meta-analysis of controlled trials of isometric exercise on resting blood pressure was therefore undertaken. Five trials were identified including a total of 122 subjects. Isometric exercise for <1 h per week reduced systolic blood pressure by 10.4 mm Hg and diastolic HSP990 mouse blood pressure by 6.7 mm Hg. These changes are similar to those achieved with a single pharmacological agent. These results suggest that isometric exercise may be of value as part of lifestyle advice in maintaining a desirable blood pressure. Journal of Human Hypertension (2010) 24, 796-800; doi:10.1038/jhh.2010.13; published online 25 February 2010″
“Background: Up to fifty percent of alcohol dependent individuals have alexithymia, a personality trait characterised by difficulties identifying and describing feelings, a lack of imagination and an externalised cognitive style.

Although studies have examined alexithymia in relation to alcohol dependence, no research exists on mechanisms underlying this relationship. The present study examined the mediational effect of alcohol expectancies on alexithymia and alcohol dependence.

Methods: 230 outpatients completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Drinking Expectancy Questionnaire (DEQ) and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT).

Results: Regression analysis showed that alexithymia and alcohol dependence was, in two of three cases, partially mediated through alcohol expectancy. Conclusions: Alcohol expectancies of assertion and affective change show promise as mediators of alcohol dependence in individuals with alexithymia. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Histiocytic hyperplasia was observed in the bone marrow smear of

Histiocytic hyperplasia was observed in the bone marrow smear of 2 patients. Mild hemophagocytosis was

observed in the bone marrow of 3 patients. All patients recovered completely, and their peripheral blood counts returned to normal by 2 to 6 weeks after antibiotic treatment of brucellosis. In conclusion, the authors would like to emphasize that brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children with pancytopenia.</.”
“Astragalus mongholicus (AM) derived from the dry root of Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongolicus (Bge.) Hsiao is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine. The present study investigated the potential role of AM on renal fibrosis on a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). We divided 48 Sprague-Dawley rats randomly into 4 groups: sham-operated group (Sham), untreated UUO group, AM-treated (10 g/(kg center dot d)) UUO Flavopiridol order group, and losartan-treated (20 mg/(kg center

dot d)) UUO group as positive control. Haematoxylin & eosin (HE) and Masson P005091 staining were used to study the dynamic histological changes of the kidneys 7 and 14 d after operation. The expressions of fibronectin (FN), type I collagen (colI), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry staining, and Western blot. Results show that, similar to losartan, AM alleviated the renal damage and decreased the deposition of FN and colI from UUO by reducing the expressions of TGF-beta 1 and alpha-SMA (P < 0.05), whereas HGF increased greatly with AM treatment (P < 0.05). Our findings reveal that AM could retard the progression of renal fibrosis. The

renoprotective effect of AM might be related to inhibition of myofibroblast activation, inducing of HGF AZD2014 datasheet and reducing of TGF-beta 1 expression.”
“Two different bisoxazolines, 2,2′-(1,3-phenylene) bis(2-oxazoline) (1,3-PBO) and 2,2′-bis(2-oxazoline) (BO) were investigated as chain extenders for short chain unsaturated polyesters (UPEs). These extenders reacted readily with carboxyl ends of unsaturated polyesters, leading to rapid molecular weight increase through coupling of oligomeric chains. Commercially available unsaturated polyesters commonly have molecular weights around 1500, usually reached after a 20-h polyesterification reaction. When bisoxazolines were reacted with short UPE chains obtained at the 6th hour of a commercial polyesterification reaction, the molecular weight of UPE reached 1500 within 530 min, which provides economies and prevents the glycol loss and yellowing which are associated with extended reaction times. Styrene solubility, gel time, and thermal and mechanical properties of the chain extended polyesters remained comparable to the commercial UPE, with 810 min of gel time and a storage modulus about 3000 MPa. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Proteins involved in carbon metabolism were identified and were p

Proteins involved in carbon metabolism were identified and were predominantly expressed at higher levels during the cleavage polyembryony and columnar embryo stages. Functional annotation of one seed protein revealed it involvement in programmed cell death and translation of selective mRNAs, which may play an important role in subordinate embryo elimination and suspensor degeneration in polyembryonic seed gymnosperms. Other identified proteins were associated with protein

folding, nitrogen metabolism, disease/defense response, and protein storage, synthesis and stabilization. The comprehensive protein expression profiles generated by this study will Cell Cycle inhibitor provide new insights into the complex developmental process of seed development in Masson pine. (C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra of cubic Al(x)Ga(1-x)N have been measured for 0 < x < 1. The intensity of the room temperature PL increases by an order of magnitude when the AlN content increases from x = 0 to x = 0.95. Additionally, the PL decay slows down with the decrease of temperature and increase of x. These results show that strong localization of carriers on alloy composition fluctuations plays a large role in determining the intensity and temporal evolution of the PL. The activation energy for the localized carriers increases with the increase of x

and reaches the value of 55 meV at x = 0.95. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3632988]“
“Docetaxel-based combination chemotherapy VS-6063 supplier remains the predominant treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, taxane-related drug resistance and neurotoxicity have prompted us to develop substitute treatment strategies. Eg5 (kinesin spindle protein), which is crucial for bipolar spindle formation and duplicated chromosome separation during the early phase of mitosis, has emerged as an attractive target for cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer efficacy of S-(methoxytrityl)-L-cysteine (S(MeO)TLC), a novel Z-IETD-FMK order Eg5 inhibitor in prostate cancer. Eg5 expression

was examined in human prostate cancer cell lines and tissue microarrays were constructed from clinical specimens. Antiproliferative activity of S(MeO) TLC in prostate cancer cells was assessed by a cell viability assay. The anticancer effect and inhibitory mechanism of S(MeO) TLC in prostate cancer cells was further explored by Hoechst staining, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. In addition, the antitumor effect of S(MeO) TLC on subcutaneous xenograft models was assessed. Eg5 expression was identified in PC3, DU145 and LNCaP cells. More than half of prostate cancer clinical specimens displayed Eg5 expression. S(MeO) TLC exhibited more powerful anticancer activity in prostate cancer cells compared with the other four Eg5 inhibitors tested.

“Fast-spiking (FS) cells in the neocortex are interconnect

“Fast-spiking (FS) cells in the neocortex are interconnected both by inhibitory chemical synapses and by electrical synapses, or gap-junctions. Synchronized firing of FS neurons is important in the generation of gamma oscillations, at frequencies between 30 and 80 Hz. To understand how these synaptic interactions control synchronization, artificial synaptic conductances were

injected in FS cells, and the synaptic phase-resetting function (SPRF), describing how the compound synaptic input perturbs B-Raf inhibition the phase of gamma-frequency spiking as a function of the phase at which it is applied, was measured. GABAergic and gap junctional conductances made distinct contributions to the SPRF, which had a surprisingly simple piecewise linear form, with a sharp midcycle break between phase delay and advance. Analysis of the SPRF showed how the intrinsic biophysical properties of FS neurons and their interconnections allow entrainment of firing over a wide gamma frequency band, whose upper selleckchem and lower frequency limits are controlled by electrical synapses and GABAergic inhibition respectively.”
“Study Design.

Retrospective, case series.

Objective. To determine the prevalence of major complications and to identify factors that increase the risk of complications in patients undergoing surgery for neuromuscular scoliosis.

Summary of Background Data. Complications after surgery for neuromuscular scoliosis are more prevalent than in idiopathic scoliosis. However, the associated risk factors have not been statistically significant.

Methods. Our computerized Pediatric Orthopedic Spine Database identified 131 consecutive patients

with neuromuscular scoliosis, excluding those with myelodysplasia, who underwent surgery and had a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors were analyzed for any association with major Geneticin nmr complications and length of stay using stepwise logistic and multiple regression analyses. Odds ratios were calculated for significant dichotomous variables, and receiver operator characteristic curves were created for significant continuous variables.

Results. There were 81 male and 50 female patients with a mean age at surgery of 13.4 years (range, 6-21 years). The majority of patients (n = 75) had cerebral palsy. Eighty-eight patients (67%) underwent posterior spinal fusion and segmental spinal instrumentation (only), whereas 43 patients (33%) underwent an anterior spinal fusion followed by a posterior spinal fusion with segmental spinal instrumentation. Seventy-seven patients (59%) were fused to the pelvis using the Galveston technique. The mean follow-up was 3.9 years (range, 2-16.9 years). There were 46 major complications in 37 patients (28% prevalence), including 2 deaths. Nonambulatory status (P < 0.05) and preoperative curve magnitude (P < 0.01) were associated with an increased prevalence of major complications.

The results for the mechanical

The results for the mechanical Z-DEVD-FMK in vivo properties showed that the processing aids increased the impact strength significantly (up to three times that of neat PP) but reduced the flexural modulus of PP nanocomposites. PPG, which is polar promoted wetting MMT surface, thus increasing its inter-layer distance, mainly for PP/C-20A nanocomposites. However, it reduced the interfacial adhesion between the clay and the matrix. Nanocomposites impact strength was improved, especially when the C-15A organoclay was used, while were achieved better results with the C-20A organoclay when EMCA was used. The larger the amount of processing aid added, the higher the impact strength, but the lower the flexural modulus of the nanocomposites.

PPG caused debonding of the clay particles and increased the number of microvoids, generating more mechanisms to aid in the energy dissipation of the systems. EMCA promoted debonding of clay particles with the formation of fibrils, indicating

stronger interactions between the clay and matrix. A slight nucleation effect for PP crystallization was observed, mainly when EMCA was used. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 15671575, 2011″
“Study Design. Systematic review.

Objective. To assess the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines in treating chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms.

Summary of Background Data. Chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms is a common condition. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms.

Methods. We electronically searched MI-503 inhibitor CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AMED (up to 2009), the Chinese Biomedical Database and related herbal medicine data-bases in Japan and South Korea (up to 2007). We also contacted content experts and hand searched

a number of journals published in China.

We included randomized controlled trials with adults with a clinical diagnosis of cervical degenerative disc disease, cervical radiculopathy, or myelopathy supported by appropriate radiologic check details findings. The interventions were Chinese herbal medicines. The primary outcome was pain relief, measured with a visual analogue scale, numerical scale, or other validated tool.

Results. All 4 included studies were in Chinese; 2 of which were unpublished. Effect sizes were not clinically relevant and there was low quality evidence for all outcomes due to study limitations and sparse data (single studies). Two trials (680 participants) found that Compound Qishe Tablets relieved pain better in the short-term than either placebo or Jingfukang; one trial (60 participants) found than an oral herbal formula of Huangqi relieved pain better than Mobicox or Methycobal, and another trial (360 participants) showed that a topical herbal medicine, Compound Extractum Nucis Vomicae, relieved pain better than Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel.