The primary difference between genome-wide linkage studies and genome-wide Y-27632 purchase association studies (GWASs) is that with linkage the investigator is looking for cotransmission of a specific DNA marker within a family, while in a genome -wide association study the investigator is looking for a population association between a DNA marker and disease. Linkage studies are better Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical suited to identifying genes that have large effects, and GWASs are better
when attempting to identify genes that have relatively small effects on the phenotype. These GWASs should examine both common markers as well a copy number variants and other rare genetic events. It is becoming evidence that complex disorders may be “caused” by both rare genes of major effect and a combination of common genes Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of lesser effect. Given the limited state of knowledge about the pathophysiological pathways important for the manifestation of OCD, it is premature at this time to restrict focus on the association of specific candidate genes with OCD. Instead, a GWAS with a sample of sufficient size is the most promising approach for the identification of genomic regions that most likely harbor OCD risk Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical genes. Once these regions have been identified, then
more informed candidate gene studies could be undertaken. Given the variability of recurrence risks and the results from the most recent twin study, it is clear that, like other neuropsychiatric conditions, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical OCD is etiologically heterogeneous. Given this high likelihood
of etiologic heterogeneity, it is critical to study a sufficiently large sample of affected individuals so that homogeneous clinical subgroups more likely to be etiologically homogenous can be identified from within the larger sample.140-141 In order to obtain these large samples, it Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is imperative that investigators interested in the genetics of OCD collaborate. A collaboration of this type (the International OCD Foundation Genetics Collaborative) is currently conducting a GWAS of OCD on samples contributed from 21 different research sites from around the world. Acknowledgments The work was supported in part by NIH grants or NS016648, NS-040024, and MH079489.
Our knowledge of psychiatric Anacetrapib and substance-use genetics comes from two key fields of research, both dynamic areas in rapid change. First, genetic epidemiology asks whether there is risk in excess of the population baseline in the relatives of cases, and, if so, whether the excess risk is attributable to the genetic factors or the environments they share. Beyond simply estimating heritability, genetic epidemiology has evolved to address more sophisticated questions, such as whether liability genes have the same effects across the lifespan, how they may influence multiple disorders, and how they might interact with environmental risks.