.. remission could be switched to another antidepressant
(sertralin, bupropion, venlafaxine) or citalopram could be augmented with bupropion or buspiron (treatment level 2). Again, those with selleck chem anxious depression fared significantly worse on both the switching and augmentation options (Figure 1).13 STAR*D is so far the largest sample to show that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical anxious depression is associated with a worse treatment outcome than nonanxious major depression. However, these results are corroborated by several other studies demonstrating worse outcome in anxious depression. As early as 35 years ago, Paykel described a worse response to treatment with amitryptiline in patients with anxious depression.14 Furthermore, in 294 depressed outpatients, those with anxious depression improved significantly less on an 8-wcck treatment with fluoxetine compared with those with nonanxious depression.15 Also, depressed patients with anxiety needed a longer time to recover than nonanxious patients in a sample Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of 327 consecutively Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical evaluated in- and outpatients with unipolar depressive
disorder.16 In elderly patients, anxious depression was associated with lower response rates to nortriptyline and was also associated with greater treatment, discontinuation rates.17 Furthermore, in a study of 157 depressed primary care patients, patients with a comorbid anxiety disorder tended to prematurely terminate treatment more frequently than patients with major depression alone.18 Depression-specific Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments were effective for depressed patients with and without a comorbid generalized anxiety disorder, although time to recovery was longer
for the former. Patients with lifetime panic disorder showed poor recover in response to psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy.18 This was corroborated by another primary care study, in which depressed patients with comorbid anxiety disorder had a 44% increased risk of persistent depression after 12 months.19 Comorbid anxiety was also a strong predictor of http://www.selleckchem.com/products/INCB18424.html nonresponse in a psychotherapy trial of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 134 Brefeldin_A female depressed outpatients treated with interpersonal therapy Higher levels of baseline somatic anxiety and social functioning were the most consistent predictors of nonresponse.20 In the Vantaa study, severity of depression and current comorbidity were the two most, important, predictors of longer episode duration:1 In that study, comorbidity, especially social phobia, also predicted probability of, shorter time to, and number of recurrences in patients with recurrent depression.22 Finally, panic attacks were associated with longer depressive episodes in a population-based study of major depressive disorder in more than 5000 participants followed over 13 years, also consistent with the hypothesis that comorbid anxiety impairs remission in depression.