“Background: Infection with high-risk type human papilloma

“Background: Infection with high-risk type human papilloma viruses (HPVs) is associated with cervical carcinomas and with a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Viral E6 and E7 oncogenes cooperate to achieve cell immortalization by a mechanism that is not yet fully understood. Here, human keratinocytes were immortalized by long-term expression of HPV type 16 E6 or E7 oncoproteins, or both. Proteomic profiling TGF-beta pathway was used to compare expression levels for 741 discrete protein features.\n\nResults: Six replicate measurements were performed for each group using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). The median within-group coefficient

of variation was 19-21%. Significance of between-group differences was tested based on Significance Analysis of Microarray and fold change. Expression of 170 (23%) of the protein features changed significantly in immortalized cells compared to primary keratinocytes. Most of these changes were qualitatively similar in cells immortalized by E6, E7, or E6/7 expression, indicating convergence on a common phenotype, but fifteen proteins (similar to 2%) were outliers in this regulatory pattern. Ten demonstrated opposite regulation in E6- and E7-expressing cells, including the

cell cycle regulator p16(INK4a); the carbohydrate binding protein Galectin-7; two differentially migrating forms of the intermediate filament protein Cytokeratin-7; Citarinostat cost HSPAIA (Hsp70-1); and five unidentified proteins. Five others had a pattern of expression that suggested cooperativity between the co-expressed oncoproteins. Two of these were identified as forms of the small heat shock protein HSPB1 (Hsp27).\n\nConclusion: This large-scale analysis provides a framework for understanding the cooperation between E6 and E7 oncoproteins in HPV-driven carcinogenesis.”
“Specific protein interactions are responsible for most biological functions. Distinguishing selleck screening library Functionally Linked Interfaces of Proteins (FLIPs), from Functionally uncorrelated

Contacts (FunCs), is therefore important to characterizing these interactions. To achieve this goal, we have created a database of protein structures called FLIPdb, containing proteins belonging to various functional sub-categories. Here, we use geometric features coupled with Kortemme and Baker’s computational alanine scanning method to calculate the energetic sensitivity of each amino acid at the interface to substitution, identify hotspots, and identify other factors that may contribute towards an interface being FLIP or FunC. Using Principal Component Analysis and K-means clustering on a training set of 160 interfaces, we could distinguish FLIPs from FunCs with an accuracy of 76%. When these methods were applied to two test sets of 18 and 170 interfaces, we achieved similar accuracies of 78% and 80%.

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