e , exogenous hormone-induced headache and estrogen-withdrawal he

e., exogenous hormone-induced headache and estrogen-withdrawal headache. As to the former, the newest formulations of COCs are generally well tolerated by migraine without aura patients,

but can worsen headache in migraine with aura patients. Headache associated with COCs, generally, tends to improve as their use continues. However, although it is not yet clear if there is an association between headache and the composition of COCs (both in the type and amount of hormones), it has been observed that the incidence of headache during COC use seems greater if migraine is associated with menstrual see more trigger. The estrogen-withdrawal headache is a headache that generally appears within the first 5 days after cessation of estrogen use and resolves within 3 days, even if in some cases it may appear on the sixth or seventh day after pill suspension and lasts more than 3 days.”
“The work describes and compares the conformation traits

and gait characteristics in the main native Iberian dressage Purebreds (Lusitano, Spanish and Menorca horses). In total, 4 strides belonging to each of 66 males (4-14 years old) were recorded at handled trot, using a 3D semi-automatic movement analysis system. Principal component analysis (PCA) and intraclass Correlations (iC) were computed. The Menorca Purebred showed proportionally higher limbs (23.8 check details and 15.1 cm for the forelimb cannon and pastern lengths), the Lusitano Purebred had larger inclinations (66.1 degrees, 37.7 degrees and 47.9 degrees for the scapula and pastern angles), and the Spanish Purebred presented a longer scapula (41.5 cm) and a larger hip angle (132.1 degrees), apparently showing a better conformation for dressage gaits. However, the three breeds presented undesirable tarsus joint conformation (<155.5 degrees) for dressage performance. In general, all of them showed good features in the kinematics of the forelimbs. Nevertheless, the functional capacity of their hindlimbs and linear parameters probably need to be improved for their competitiveness. (c) 2013

Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A comprehensive analysis is presented of the effects of surface diffusional anisotropy on the morphological stability of planar surfaces of stressed crystalline Selleckchem CA3 solids under the simultaneous action of an electric field. The analysis is based on self-consistent dynamical simulations of driven surface morphological evolution in conjunction with linear stability theory. Results are reported of a systematic study of the effects on the surface morphological response of varying surface diffusional anisotropy parameters; these include the direction of the applied electric field with respect to fast surface diffusion directions, the surface crystallographic orientation, and the strength of the anisotropy that increases with decreasing temperature.

However, socioeconomic reality in these societies makes it diffic

However, socioeconomic reality in these societies makes it difficult to establish face transplant as a feasible therapeutic opportunity for the overwhelming majority of patients who are victims of severe facial damage.

Therefore, strategies such as latissimus

dorsi free flap remains as an excellent therapy to face off our complex facial reconstructive challenges in developing countries such as Mexico.”
“Purpose of review

The diagnostic approach to children with possible appendicitis remains challenging. Although advances in Bcl-2 inhibition imaging have improved diagnostic accuracy over clinical judgment alone, new management strategies continue to evolve. This review serves as an update on imaging, biomarkers, and management of appendicitis.

Recent findings

Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound continue to be the ancillary radiologic studies of choice for appendicitis. Recent studies on the use of CT have focused on the need for intravenous or enteral contrast. Despite lower diagnostic performance, ultrasound has the advantage of sparing patients from radiation exposure. MRI is being evaluated as an additional diagnostic modality. New biomarkers, beyond a standard white

blood cell count or absolute neutrophil count, continue to be investigated, but these are not being routinely used in practice. Different management approaches are also being investigated, including nonoperative treatment with antibiotic therapy for early, acute appendicitis.


The best use of advanced radiologic imaging for children ALK activation with possible appendicitis is actively debated. CT continues to Cilengitide cost show superior accuracy as compared with ultrasound; however, screening ultrasounds for nonobese children have advantages. The combination of robust decision rules that incorporate biomarkers and the judicious use of CT will help define

diagnostic strategies for appendicitis over the next decade.”
“Fibroma of the tendon sheath is a benign tumor that is less common than giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. Both tumors may present as a painless, slowly enlarging mass. Radiological findings may be similar for both tumors. Histologically, fibroma of the tendon sheath lacks the hemosiderin-laden macrophages that are typical for giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. We report on a 49-year-old woman with fibroma of the tendon sheath of the long head of the biceps tendon. In our case, on MR images, we observed band-like hypointense areas centrally in the tumor, mild patchy contrast enhancement, and most importantly, no decrease of signal intensity on gradient echo images. These characteristics reflected histological findings.”
“Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and serum total bilirubin (TB) is reported to be negatively associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). There has been no report on the association between TB and CVD prevalence in Japanese.

The x-ray topography demonstrated the high quality structure of t

The x-ray topography demonstrated the high quality structure of the epitaxial layers and the absence of any transition regions between 3C-SiC epitaxial layer and substrate. The low-temperature conductivity and magnetoresistance of the films have been studied as functions of their doping level and structural Acalabrutinib clinical trial quality. It was found that the metal-insulator transition occurs in the n-3C-SiC layer at concentrations N(d)-N(a)<= 3×10(17)

“Objective: Superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2) is considered one of the most important antioxidant enzymes that regulate cellular redox state in normal and tumorigenic cells. Overexpression of this enzyme may be involved in carcinogenesis, particularly in lung, gastric, colorectal and breast cancer.

Methods: In the present study, we have evaluated SOD2 protein levels by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 331 cervical histological samples including 31 low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (LSIL), 51 high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HSIL), 197 squamous cervical carcinomas (SCC) and 52 cervical adenocarcinomas (ADENO).

Results: We observed that SOD2 staining increases https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-263.html with cervical disease severity. Intense SOD2 staining was found in 13% of LSIL, 25.5% of HSIL and 40% of SCC. Moreover, 65.4% of ADENO exhibited

intense SOD2 staining.

Conclusions: Differences in the expression of SOD2 could potentially be used as a biomarker for the characterization of different stages of cervical disease.”
“OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk factors for delayed sputum culture conversion to negative during anti-tuberculosis treatment, with an emphasis on smoking.

DESIGN: Nested case-control study of adults with non-cavitary, culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) participating in an anti-tuberculosis treatment trial in Brazil. A case of delayed culture conversion was a patient who remained culture-positive after 2 months of treatment. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated.

RESULTS: Fifty-three cases

and 240 control patients MLN4924 datasheet were analyzed. Smokers had three-fold greater odds of remaining culture-positive after 2 months of treatment (P = 0.007) than non-smokers, while smokers and ex-smokers who smoked >20 cigarettes a day had two-fold greater odds of remaining culture-positive after 2 months of treatment (P = 0.045).

CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking adversely affects culture conversion during anti-tuberculosis treatment. Support for smoking cessation should be considered to improve outcomes in TB control programs.”
“Two substrates were coated with a mixture containing two polyamic acids. One of the polyamic acids has an alkyl side chain and ordinarily is used for vertical liquid crystal alignment. The other polyamic acid does not have a side chain and ordinarily is used for planar liquid crystal alignment. The substrates were baked in order to promote imidization.


days) This prolongation was associated with a reducti


days). This prolongation was associated with a reduction in trafficking of ADDC to recipient lymphoid tissue as well as a reduction in ON-01910 research buy T cell priming. Depleting ADDC with diphtheria toxin (using DTR-GFP-DC mice as donors) 24 h prior to transplant resulted in abrogation of the prolongation observed with MCI-186 treatment, demonstrating that the beneficial effect of MCI-186 is mediated by ADDC. This donor-specific anti-ischemic regimen was also shown to reduce chronic rejection, which represents the primary obstacle to long-term allograft acceptance. These data for the first time establish a basis for donor anti-ischemic strategies, which in the ever-expanding marginal donor pools, can be instituted to promote engraftment.”
“Objective: To identify factors affecting adult height in Japanese patients with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (GHD), who received BEZ235 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor growth hormone (GH) treatment during childhood.


A retrospective pharmaco-epidemiological study of the effect of GH treatment on adult height standard deviation scores (SDS) was conducted in 374 Japanese patients with idiopathic GHD. During childhood, GH (0.146 +/- 0.023 mg/kg/week) was administered for a mean of 6.4 +/- 2.6 years.

Results: The mean adult height was 160.6 +/- 6.3 cm (-1.75 SD; n=232) in boys and 146.9 +/- 7.3 cm (-2.20 SD; n=158) in girls learn more after GH therapy. The mean increases in height SDS in boys and girls with severe GHD were 2.13 SD and 1.66 SD, respectively (p<0.05). These increases were greater than those observed in patients with moderate GHD and mild GHD. The mean adult height of male patients with GHD and gonadotropin

deficiency (166.8 cm) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of isolated GHD patients who were either receiving (159.1 cm) or not receiving (160.5 cm) gonadal suppression therapy. The mean adult heights of female patients were 149.6, 146.7, and 146.9 cm, respectively, and these values did not significantly differ.

Conclusion: Linear multiple regression analyses of Japanese patients with severe GHD (n=61) revealed three independent variables that influenced adult height: gonadotropin deficiency, initial height SDS and height velocity during the first year after the initiation of GH therapy.”
“Conservation planning and management decisions often present trade-offs among habitats and species, generating uncertainty about the composition and configuration of habitat that will best meet management goals. The public acquisition of 5471 ha of salt ponds in San Francisco Bay for tidal-marsh restoration presents just such a challenge. Because the existing ponds support large numbers of waterbirds, restoring the entire area to tidal marsh could cause undesirable local declines for many species.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of anti-TNF treatment on radiol

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of anti-TNF treatment on radiological manifestations of PTB.

METHOD: Between January 2007 and December 2012, the chest radiographs (CXRs) of 23 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed PTB who underwent anti-TNF treatment were studied. Chest computed tomography (CT) images

were available for 14. To compare the radiological features AZD3965 mw of PTB, the CXRs of 46 immunocompetent PTB patients with similar demographics were studied as controls, of whom 34 underwent chest CT. Two radiologists and one chest physician reviewed the chest images independently.

RESULTS: Compared with the controls, fibronodular lesions were less common on CXR in the anti-TNF group (P < 0.001). In contrast, lymphadenopathy (P < 0.001), pleural effusion (P = 0.015) and pericardial

effusion (P = 0.02) were more common, while tree-in-bud appearance (P = 0.017) was less commonly depicted on chest CT in the anti-TNF group. Although there was no significant difference in zonal predilection and laterality of the lesions between the two groups, diffuse lesions (P = 0.004) on chest CT scans were more frequent in the anti-TNF group.

CONCLUSION: Unusual presentations of PTB were more common in the CXRs and/or CT scans of patients who underwent anti-TNF treatment.”
“Prunus spinosa, blackthorn, exists as wild populations that inhabit uncultivated uplands of Coruh Valley in the northeastern part of Turkey; the fruit is used to make preserves. We examined genetic diversity in wild-grown Prunus selleck screening library spinosa; 16 individual plants from wild populations of Coruh Valley were sampled and subjected to RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) analysis. We tested 51 random decamer primers; 15 of them gave reproducible polymorphic patterns. These 15 primers produced

226 bands, of which 65% were polymorphic. A UPGMA dendrogram clearly divided the genotypes into four groups; we concluded that RAPD analysis can be used for examining genetic relatedness among blackthorn genotypes.”
“Background: The Global Risk Profile Verification in Patients with Venous Thromboembolism was the first prospective Multicenter registry conducted in Arabian Gulf Countries to explore the epidemiology of venous thromboembolic (VTE) disorders and to provide check details data on diagnosis and disease management. Methods;: Data on 242 patients with confirmed WE were Submitted between September 2003 and November 2003 from 28 contributing hospitals in the Arabian Gulf region. Differences between groups were assessed by the chi(2) test or Fisher exact test for categorical variables. The Student’s t test was used for testing proportions. Results: The frequency of VTE cases is deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 187 (77.27%); pulmonary embolism (PE), 35 (14.46%); and DVT with PE, 20 (8.26%). The most common symptoms of DVT and DVT/PE patients were calf pain (72%), calf swelling (63.8%), and localized tenderness (52.2%).

However, she still has the majority of one ovary cryostored and m

However, she still has the majority of one ovary cryostored and may later want to undergo additional transplantation to regain fertility or to have menstrual cycles back.”
“OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal circulation is associated with ischaemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and atrial fibrillation (AF). Ageing is the major risk factor for this www.selleckchem.com/products/pp2.html arrhythmia. Reinforcing the antioxidant defence system would be expected to protect the myocardium against ischaemia-reperfusion damage. We studied the effect of antioxidant reinforcement

and ageing on the occurrence of postoperative AF.

METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and vitamins C and E, or placebo was administered to 152 patients divided by age: young patients (30-59 years) and old patients (60-80 years). For the detection of AF, we used 12-lead and Holter EKGs. Antioxidant GSK3326595 enzyme activity was determined in atrial tissue. Oxidative stress was assessed through plasma malondialdehyde levels.

RESULTS: Supplemented patients over 60 years

old showed higher glutathione peroxidase activity than control patients in the same age range. There was no difference between the supplemented and placebo groups in patients under 60 years old. The decrease in the incidence of postoperative AF in supplemented patients was more marked in the older patients than in the younger ones.

CONCLUSIONS: Since the antioxidant supplementation with n-3 PUFAs and vitamins C and E resulted in a more marked reduction of postoperative AF in older patients, it could be suggested that the efficacy of this therapy improves with ageing.”
“Purpose of review

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an immune dysregulatory syndrome that is associated

with underlying defects of perforin-dependent cytotoxic selleck function. This review seeks to update readers on new scientific insights and evolving clinical concepts related to this rare but fatal disorder.

Recent findings

Clinically, HLH is defined by severe inflammation and potentially fatal damage to a variety of organ systems including the bone marrow, liver, or brain. Recent preclinical studies have increasingly defined HLH as a syndrome of abnormal and excessive T-cell activation, which leads to toxic activation of macrophages and other innate immune cells. Although macrophages have long been suspected to be important for disease development, recent studies have for the first time demonstrated their central role in the development of inflammation-associated cytopenias. In addition to defining new therapeutic targets, these scientific insights suggest significant overlap between HLH and severe inflammation in a variety of clinical contexts. Recent clinical observations are also changing how HLH is conceptualized.

We describe a case with both complex partial seizures and episode

We describe a case with both complex partial seizures and episodes of TEA. This is the first reported case of a neurosurgical intervention for symptoms resembling

those described in refractory TEA. Video/EEG, 3-T MRI, neuropathology, and neurological as well as neuropsychological findings are presented with postsurgical clinical outcome. The patient underwent right anterior amygdalohippocampectomy for symptoms resembling refractory TEA with additional complex partial seizures at our epilepsy surgical center. She remained seizure free at the 15-month follow-up, and memory complaints remitted. This case report illustrates one memory GSK621 chemical structure disorder, transient epileptic amnesia, that is potentially treatable with antiepileptic drugs or surgery. Published by Elsevier Selleckchem NVP-BSK805 Inc.”
“2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) was coated onto cotton fabric with 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) as a crosslinking agent to simultaneously impart antimicrobial and durable-press functionalities. The coatings were characterized and confirmed by attenuated total reflectanceIR and thermogravimetric

analysis. The coated fabrics were rendered biocidal upon exposure to dilute household bleach, and the chlorinated swatches exhibited about 6 log reductions of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus within 5 min of contact time. A concentration of 1.5 wt % AMP was sufficient to produce this biocidal efficacy. Increasing the BTCA content of the coating improved the wrinkle recovery angle. The coatings were very stable toward repeated laundering, and they exhibited sufficient halogen storage stabilities for industrial applications. A photolytic decomposition was observed when the coatings were exposed to UVA light. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“An improved technique to study kinetics and quantitative absorption of nutrients

in pigs is described. Three female pigs (35 kg of BW) were surgically modified with catheters in the hepatic portal vein and carotid artery and an ultrasonic flow probe around the portal vein. Catheter GSI-IX ic50 placement and patency was secured using distal modifications (rings and holes) and nonabsorbable suture. Catheters and flow probe cable were tunneled subcutaneously after exteriorization for further protection. Fibrosis and adhesions in the body cavity were minimized by avoiding excessive manipulation and drying of viscera. Pigs were supported during recovery by intravenous fluid therapy of AA and electrolytes until regular feeding resumed. Catheters were flushed daily with heparinized saline (200 IU/L). After 10 d, pigs were fed a diet based on wheat and soybean meal for 6 consecutive 7-d periods.

Microscopically, the tumor turned out to be a capillary hemangiom

Microscopically, the tumor turned out to be a capillary hemangioma in a background of steatohepatitis. We searched the literature, and only six similar cases were found. We made a brief review of this rare disease entity and described its clinicopathological features. Copyright (C) 2011, Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.”
“Association between autoimmune liver diseases and scleroderma has been described. The purpose of this study was to study the prevalence of antimithocondrial antibody (AMA), antismooth muscle antibodies (SMA), and liver-kidney-microsomal

(LKM-1) autoantibody in a cohort of 63 scleroderma patients and 100 healthy controls. The autoantibodies AMA, SMA, and LKM were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. click here Patients’ charts were reviewed for demographic data, scleroderma form, and clinical and antinuclear antibody profile, aiming MI-503 inhibitor a comparison between patients with and without liver autoantibodies. Nine patients (14.3%) were positive for at least one of the liver autoantibodies; only one patient had both AMA and SMA positive. Antibody SMA was positive in 6.4% (4/63) patients; AMA was present in 9.52% (6/63) of them; none were positive to LKM-1. In the control group just one patient (1%) was SMA positive; the other autoantibodies were negative. There is an increased prevalence

of liver autoantibodies in patients with scleroderma than in control population. These patients should be carefully followed for liver dysfunction.”
“The present work deals with the preparation buy VX-770 of carbon fibers from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers. The chemical composition and physical properties of the starting fibers were determined. The PAN fibers were stabilized in air at the temperatures (230, 270, and 300 degrees C) with the heating time from

40 to 420 min. The effects of both final stabilization temperature and heating rate on the chemical and physical properties of the prepared stabilized fibers were studied. The chosen stabilized fibers samples were carbonized in argon atmosphere at the temperatures (1000, 1200, and 1400 degrees C) with different heating rates 5, 10, 15, and 20 degrees C min(-1). The effects of both carbonizing temperature and heating rate on the weight loss, density, elemental composition, and IR absorption spectra of carbonized fibers were also studied. The fiber sample, which was carbonized at 1400 degrees C, contains 97.55% carbon, 1.75% nitrogen, and 1.4% hydrogen. This means that carbonizing the stabilized fibers at 1400 degrees C in argon atmosphere is suitable to get oxygen-free carbon fibers. Therefore, the used carbonizing temperature in the present work (1400 degrees C) is suitable to produce moderate heat-treated carbon fibers with the heating rate of 15 degrees C min(-1). The modulus of the prepared carbon fibers was compared to that of industrially produced fibers using the results of X-ray analysis. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

We suggest a method and software that give accurate estimates and

We suggest a method and software that give accurate estimates and enables inference for any parameter or predictive quantity of interest.”
“An appropriate and easy embryo transfer has a direct impact on pregnancy

rates. Proper evaluation of the uterocervical axis and uterine depth are necessary for suitable embryo transfer. The aim of this study was to assess the appropriate time for cervical axis evaluation and uterine measurement. A total www.selleckchem.com/products/pexidartinib-plx3397.html of 124 patients undergoing IVF treatment were included in the study. They were divided equally into two groups. In group I (62 women), uterine cavity depth was measured and the uterocervical axis was determined on day 2 or 3 of the menstrual EPZ-6438 cycle, and in group II (62 women) at the time of oocyte retrieval. There

was a statistically significant difference in clinical pregnancy rates between the two groups (P = 0.006). Thirty-four women became pregnant in group I (64.2%) versus 19 women in group II (35.8%). In conclusion, uterine cavity measurement is necessary for suitable embryo transfer. It seems that the time of measurement significantly affects clinical pregnancy rate in IVF cycles. The best time for uterine measurement is on day 2 or 3 of menstruation.”
“Contents The aim of this study was to develop a new method for morphometric assessment of the sperm head and acrosome in the ram. Ejaculates from 10 adult males were collected using an artificial vagina. For each ejaculate, 10 semen smears were prepared, air-dried and divided (in pairs) into the following five treatment groups: (i) washed in distilled water and allowed to dry without further processing (DRY); (ii) fixed in 50% methanol (MET); (iii) fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde (GLUT); (iv) fixed and stained with Hemacolor((R)) (HEM) and (v) fixed and stained with SpermBlue((R)) (SB). The prepared slides were examined with a 40xRelief Contrast((R)) objective (RC) and

processed EVP4593 purchase with ISAS((R)) commercial software. The use of RC optics increased the contrast between acrosome and sperm head, allowing capture and morphometric analysis by ISAS of sperm heads and the acrosome, even in non-stained samples. MET and GLUT groups resulted in a lower number of acceptable, that is, correctly delineated, sperm heads than those in the SB, and SB and HEM groups, respectively (p<0.05). The higher proportion of sperm discarded in MET and GLUT groups may be explained by a higher presence of artefacts. For the majority of the primary morphometric parameters of the sperm head and the acrosomal area, the relationship between treatments was the following: GLUT> HEM MET SB> DRY. When studying the proportion of the sperm head covered by the acrosome, the relation between treatments was: MET> DRY = GLUT = SB> HEM.

This review will present the current state of the art including t

This review will present the current state of the art including the epidemiology of MHO and its definitions, what factors may be important in determining metabolic health status and finally, some potential implications of the MHO phenotype in the context of obesity diagnosis, interventions and treatment.”

Melasma is a common pigmentary disorder that affects all skin types but is seen more in individuals with Fitzpatrick skin type IV to VI. Safe and effective treatment options for melasma need to be explored. Already proven effective SYN-117 inhibitor for the treatment of pigmentary disorders, lasers have been used to treat melasma in recent years.

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of a 1,064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QS Nd:YAG) laser in the treatment of melasma.

METHODS Fifty patients were recruited for this study (47 female; 3 male). All were treated selleck screening library using the 1,064-nm QS Nd: YAG laser at low energy levels weekly for nine sessions. Follow-up was done 3 months after the final laser session, and recurrence rates were evaluated. Digital photographs were taken and the melanin index (MI) measured before each treatment visit and after the final treatment. Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scores were evaluated for all of

the patients. Patients were required to evaluate their satisfaction at the end of the nine treatments. We also used a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) for several patients to investigate pathologic changes at baseline, after the treatments, and at the time of recurrence. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate clinical response and factors related to the therapeutic outcome.

RESULTS Mean MI decreased 35.8%, from 70.0 at baseline to 44.9 after the treatment (p < .001). Mean MASI scores decreased 61.3% after therapy (from 10.6-4.1, p < .001); 70% of patients had more than a 50% decrease in their MASI values, and 10% had 100% clearance. Recurrence rate at the 3-month follow-up was 64%. CLSM findings indicated less melanin in the treated regions, although it increased

at recurrence. Multiple linear regression indicated that the therapeutic outcome depended on disease severity at baseline (p = .001, R = 0.494). Minimal adverse events were observed during the study.

CONCLUSIONS The Autophagy inhibitor 1,064-nm QS Nd: YAG laser is an effective and safe treatment for melasma, although recurrence rates remain high, and further adjunctive therapy needs to be explored to prevent this recurrence.”
“Pseudo-single-crystal Cu underlayer (UL) with thermal tolerance was obtained on bare Si wafer by employing a diffusion-blocking layer. Fe4N layer fabricated on the Cu UL has an epitaxial relationship and a large grain diameter. Magnetic tunnel junctions in a stacking sequence of Fe4N/MgO/CoFeB exhibited an inverse tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effect at room temperature.