6907) There was a higher incidence of extraintestinal manifestat

6907). There was a higher incidence of extraintestinal manifestations (44%) in patients with HLA B27 compared with those without (25%) (p = 0.0962). Conclusion: The prevalence of HLA B27 in our population of Crohn’s disease is consistent with reports in the literature. Patients with HLA B27 tend to have less severe Crohn’s disease, but there is a higher rate of extraintestinal manifestations. KCP SZE,1,2 A SIRIWARDANA,1,2 A SECHI,1 WSW NG,1,2 SJ CONNOR1,2 1Department of Gastroenterology, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 2The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Background: Thiopurines (TP) are a mainstay selleck kinase inhibitor of inflammatory

bowel disease (IBD) therapy. Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and TP metabolites testing have been

suggested to predict variation in metabolism and response to therapy. However, prospective data to confirm clinical benefits of metabolites guided dosing is still limited, LY294002 in vivo as are guidelines for TP monitoring. Aim: To evaluate Australian gastroenterologists’ practice in TP use for IBD, including TPMT and metabolites testing, full blood count (FBC) monitoring, allopurinol co-therapy, effects on clinical outcomes, and how practices changed over time. Methods: An anonymous survey was distributed to gastroenterologists by email and at meetings across Australia over 6 months in 2013, and results were compared with a similar survey conducted

in 20081. The Chi-squared and Fisher exact tests were used to calculate statistical significance. Results: 168 responses were received (135 online; 33 paper), of which 137 (81.5%) were complete, while the remainder 31 (18.5%) were partially complete. The results found a statistically significant increase in 2013 from 2008 with respect to the proportion of respondents who utilized TPMT testing (79.1% vs 44.5%, p < 0.0001), and TP metabolites testing (87.7% vs 29.1%, p < 0.0001). A large proportion of those who utilized TP metabolite testing used it not just for non-response (84.8%), but also for dose adjustment to optimize response (80.4%). With respect to allopurinol co-therapy, this was utilized by the majority of respondents (71%) amongst whom a significant proportion used it for MCE shunters irrespective of LFTs (24.7%) or for side effects irrespective of LFTs (36.6%). Overall the majority of respondents believed the availability of metabolites testing had improved clinical outcomes by improved response rates, reduced complication rates, and changed clinical practice (80.6%, 60.4% and 79.2% of respondents, respectively). Additionally, variability was found in full blood count monitoring intervals during the first three months of commencing TP therapy, reflecting a lack of consensus on myelotoxicity monitoring. 1.

However, a large majority progress

to chronic active gast

However, a large majority progress

to chronic active gastritis, where from thenceforth the fork in the road develops. A proportion of patients will develop antral predominant gastritis which may subsequently be complicated by duodenal ulcer(s) and/or rarely PXD101 lymphoma, whilst another proportion will develop multifocal atrophic gastritis and subsequently become at risk for developing gastric ulcer(s), gastric cancer and rarely lymphoma. Why one individual during the course of their HP infection should clear the infection without the use of antibiotics is uncertain, and why individuals should arrest at any stage of this “pathway” without progressing to develop complications again is unresolved. The nature of acute infections with HP are understood due to a small number of cases where investigators and/or volunteers have been intentionally infected with the bacteria.29,30 Acute gastritis results histologically in a neutrophilic gastritis followed by a gradual infiltration by all classes

of inflammatory cells, including prominently lymphocytes and coupled with a transient hypochlorhydria. Post-acute gastritis, two patterns of chronic gastritis are observed and this difference in topography is associated with different diseases. Antral predominant gastritis is seen usually in conjunction with little or no gastric atrophy in duodenal Staurosporine ulcer disease, with normal or increased acid secretion.30–33 This is in comparison to the extensive pattern of gastritis with corpus (usually with antral) atrophy which tends to progress through intestinal metaplasia, to intestinal-type gastric cancer with hypochlorhydria, or achlorhydria. 上海皓元 The location of a peptic ulcer, when considered in association with HP infection gives the clinician the pattern and topography of HP-associated inflammation in the stomach. Duodenal ulcers are associated with antral predominant gastritis of the non-atrophic variety, hypergastrinaemia and hypersecretion of acid.30 Patients with duodenal ulcer virtually never develop body atrophic gastritis and consequently retain robust acid secretion.34,35

Conversely, gastric ulcers are thought to be associated with a chronic non-atrophic gastritis initially which progresses to chronic atrophic gastritis which involves both corpus and, invariably, the antrum and decreased acid output.36,37 Importantly, in patients with CAG, some studies have found that eradication of HP infection partially reverses the hypochlorhydria/achlorhydria seen resulting in an improvement in inflammation histologically.38–43 Annibale et al. report only 20% of their study patients reversed gastric body atrophy after HP eradication, whilst the remaining 80% retained gastric atrophic change or IM that was initially observed.44 Of note, patients with CAG may progress to intestinal metaplasia (IM).

In this report, we demonstrate that the major virulence genes of

In this report, we demonstrate that the major virulence genes of H. pylori, cagA and vacA, are strongly induced in bacteria associated with the gastric epithelial cell line AGS. Fur that acts as a global Dasatinib mouse regulator in H. pylori [31] has a role in the AGS cell contact-dependent upregulation of cagA and vacA. The H. pylori strain 26695 was grown in GC agar medium (BD Difco, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) supplemented with 6.8% defibrinated horse blood (Remel, Lenexa, KS, USA), 8% horse serum (GIBCO, Grand Island, NY, USA), L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate (MP Biomedicals, Santa Ana, CA, USA) and IsoVitaleX (BD BBL, Sparks,

MD, USA) at 37 °C under microaerobic conditions (7.5% CO2, 5% O2

in air) and subcultured every 2 days. Helicobacter pylori cultures growing in GC agar plates were enumerated by CFU assay every 24 hours for up to 96 hours. As has been reported previously [32], the cultures attained the mid-logarithmic phase of growth at 48 hours; selleck kinase inhibitor hence, H. pylori cultures grown on GC agar plates for 48 hours were used in this study. The bacteria were maintained as frozen stocks at −80 °C in brain heart infusion medium supplemented with 20% glycerol. AGS cells were grown to about 75% confluency in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and washed thrice with PBS, and RPMI with 10% FBS was added. Helicobacter pylori cultures grown in GC agar plates for 48 hours and suspended in RPMI were added

to the AGS monolayer at multiplicity of infection (MOI) 50 and incubated at 37 °C under microaerobic conditions for the desired period of time. At the end of the incubation period, unadhered bacteria in the supernatant were removed, the H. pylori-infected AGS cell line was washed three to four times with PBS, and the adhered bacteria were released by lysing the AGS cells with 1% Triton X-100 in PBS for about 5 minutes followed by vigorous pipetting. The bacterial CFU was determined by serial dilution and plating on BHI agar plates. It was separately confirmed that treatment with 1% Triton X-100 had no effect MCE公司 on the viability or gene expression in H. pylori. Adherence of H. pylori to HeLa and Hep-2 cells was performed similarly. Parallel experiments were performed with H. pylori under identical conditions but without cell line. In some experiments, the iron chelator 2,2′-dipyridyl (dpp) was added at a concentration of 200 μmol/L during adherence assays. All experiments were repeated at least thrice, and the data are expressed as means ± standard deviation (SD). The statistical significance of the data was analyzed using the Students t-test, and p values <.05 were considered significant. RNA was extracted from unadhered and adhered H. pylori using TRIzol reagent (Gibco BRL) following the manufacturer’s instructions.

In addition, hepatic histology was a significant predictor of cli

In addition, hepatic histology was a significant predictor of clinical outcome in these laboratory models, indicating that liver biopsy would still find more be required to optimize the prediction of risk for developing a clinical outcome. In contrast, nearly all of the patients who experienced clinical outcomes had values for QLFTs outside normal range, suggesting that QLFTs could provide greater discrimination between high- and low-risk patients in clinic populations enriched with patients who have milder disease. Indeed, in the

current study, CA Cloral, PHM, spleen volume, MBT, and, possibly, CA shunt enhanced the predictability of the HALT-C laboratory model. Although normal ALT and minimal fibrosis on liver biopsy may imply minimal disease, a proportion of these

patients have more advanced disease and are at risk for clinical outcomes.41-43 QLFTs could potentially be useful in this population by defining those with significant hepatic impairment who would be predicted to experience future clinical outcomes. Historically, clinical assessment of patients with liver disease has relied on surrogates of hepatic function (i.e., fibrosis stage or liver blood tests), as opposed to a true measurement of function. In the evaluation of disease affecting other organs, functional assessment defines prognosis and clinical management. Because fibrosis and standard blood tests have been the standards BGB324 order for assessing severity of liver disease, functional tests have been compared to these surrogates. Unfortunately, these comparisons cannot differentiate the advantages of functional testing over surrogates, or vice versa. Using a relevant, discriminating endpoint (i.e., clinical outcome), we compared QLFTs to hepatic histology and standard blood tests 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 and demonstrated that QLFTs compared favorably to hepatic histology and enhanced standard blood tests in the prediction of clinical outcome. Analyses of our battery of QLFTs suggest that CA Cl and PHM performed best in identifying patients at risk for clinical outcomes. When

used serially, these tests had the highest pooled RR, sensitivity, and negative predictive value. In contrast to CA Cl and PHM, metabolic tests may be influenced by age, gender, medications, BMI, and hepatic steatosis.19, 44-50 We conclude that QLFTs identify patients at risk for future clinical decompensation and, also, patients with adequate hepatic reserve who would have a benign clinical course. Despite these favorable characteristics, questions remain. Are QLFTs practical or ready for routine use in clinical practice, or, will any of the QLFTs gain approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration? It is our opinion that broader clinical application of QLFTs is not only possible, but also likely.

Per American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD)

Per American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) consensus statements, the alcohol consumption threshold

to define NASH included <21 drinks per week for men and <14 drinks per week for women at the height of maximal alcohol intake before curative treatment.34 Using this definition, patients with a previous history of alcohol use that may have predisposed to alcohol-induced liver disease were excluded from the categories of definite NASH and borderline NASH. Criteria for metabolic syndrome were extrapolated from international guidelines35, 36 GSK458 manufacturer and included any three of the following: body mass index (BMI) >28.8 kg/m2 (validated as a replacement for elevated waist circumference in men and women)23 and documentation of or medical treatment for dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and/or diabetes mellitus (DM). Active HCV infection was defined by either viral hepatitis Smoothened Agonist in vivo noted on histopathologic examination, positive serology, or an elevated viral titer. Preoperative ascites was defined by appearance on radiologic imaging, detection on physical examination, or treatment with diuretics and/or paracentesis. Reported model for end-stage liver disease

(MELD) scores do not include upgrades for HCC. Criteria for definitive curative therapy with hepatic ablation, resection, or liver transplantation were not uniform throughout the study period. Every patient was evaluated at a multidisciplinary tumor conference comprising gastroenterologists, hepatologists, transplant surgeons, medical oncologists, and surgical oncologists. For patients who underwent RFA, the size and number of hepatic lesions was determined from last preoperative

imaging. Of note, all gross sites of disease (including the few cases of metastatic disease) were resected at definitive curative treatment. In all cases, disease recurrence was noted on postoperative radiologic imaging. For those patients treated with liver transplantation, no donor organs were obtained from executed prisoners or other institutionalized persons. Steatosis grade, fibrosis stage, and hepatocyte ballooning were reported as described by Kleiner et al.7 Instead 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 of the precise number of foci per high-power field, lobular inflammation was reported as “none,” “rare/spotty,” or “moderate/heavy.” Each of these terms was then coded in increasing severity from 0 to 2 in calculating the NAFLD activity score (NAS).7 Because the stigmata of NASH may disappear with cirrhosis, the most severe form of each pathologic category (e.g., steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and so on) present on examination from the definitive curative treatment or on previous pathology specimens was reported. Pathologist determination of NASH was reported independently of NAS and was categorized as definite, borderline, or none per consensus guidelines.

92,95,163–167 Six of the seven studies were conducted in Western

92,95,163–167 Six of the seven studies were conducted in Western populations and they demonstrated a benefit over placebo for symptom improvement in FD patients,92,163–167 though PPIs may not be effective in dysmotility-like dyspepsia.168 In fact, the combined effect of all seven trials (2387 PPI patients, 1338 placebo patients) was expressed in a recent meta-analysis,169 which reported that there was a modest but statistically significant difference in symptom relief in patients receiving PPIs (40.3%) compared with those given placebo (32.7%), and the estimated number needed to selleck products treat was 14.6 patients (95% CI, 8.7 to 57.1).

It must be noted that the only trial that showed negative results among the seven trials in the abovementioned meta-analysis was from Hong Kong. In addition, a recent randomized trial from Hong Kong that investigated the efficacy of a PPI on H. pylori-negative uninvestigated dyspeptic patients (epigastric pain and discomfort) also failed to show an efficacy of PPI over placebo.96 An open-labelled study from Singapore, also reported only a modest response to PPI.170 Characteristic differences between Asian and Western patients with FD may explain the lower benefit of PPIs in Asian patients. These data suggest that the efficacy of PPIs in patients with FD needs to be re-evaluated in the Asian population. Statement 25. High-dose

proton pump inhibitor therapy is not superior to standard doses for symptom control in functional selleckchem dyspepsia. Grade of evidence: moderate. MCE公司 Strength of recommendation: probably not do it. Level of agreement: a: 65.0%; b: 25.0%; c: 10.0%; d: 0%; e: 0%; f: 0%. Several studies have examined the role of standard and

higher doses of PPI in the treatment of FD.95,164–166,168 Whether the patients responded to PPIs or not, these studies, which involved a large number of patients, consistently found no difference in symptom response between standard and higher PPI doses. A recent meta-analysis also concluded that the dose of PPI did not influence the response of FD symptoms to treatment.169 It is therefore proposed that a standard dose of PPI is sufficient in the management of FD, and that dose escalation is unlikely to further reduce symptoms. Another concern regarding the use of higher doses of PPI in patients with FD relates to incurring unwanted problems caused by acid inhibition. Recent studies of healthy, asymptomatic volunteers who received PPI treatment for either 4 or 8 weeks demonstrated rebound acid hypersecretion following withdrawal of the PPI, resulting in the development of dyspeptic symptoms after PPI treatment.171,172 Yet another concern regarding PPI administration relates to the development of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients receiving long-term therapy.173 Although long-term PPI therapy has not been advocated in FD, the risk of SIBO may be greater in patients on higher PPI doses than in patients on standard PPI doses.

Background— A need for integrated headache care using comprehens

Background.— A need for integrated headache care using comprehensive and standardized assessment for diagnosis of headache, psychiatric comorbidity, and burden of disease exists. There are little published data on long-term efficacy of multidisciplinary treatment programs for chronic headache. Design.—

A prospective, observational, 12-month, follow-up study. Subjects and Methods.— Selleckchem LY2157299 Prospectively recruited consecutive patients with frequent difficult-to-treat headaches (n = 201; 63 migraine, 11 tension-type headache, 59 combined migraine/tension-type headache, and 68 medication overuse headache) were enrolled. Outcome measures included prospective headache diaries, a medication survey, Migraine Disability Assessment, 12-item short form health survey, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results.— The primary outcome of a reduction of ≥50% of headache frequency (days/month) was observed in 62.7%. Mean headache frequency decreased from 14.4 ± 8.2 to 7.6 ± 8.3 days/month, P < .0001. Secondary outcomes improved significantly in the total

cohort and all headache subgroups. Predictors for good outcome were younger age, few days lost at work/school, and familiarity with progressive muscle relaxation therapy at baseline. Conclusions.— The present analysis provided support for a cross-sectional multidisciplinary EMD 1214063 in vitro integrated headache-care program. “
“Background.— Dihydroergotamine (DHE) has been used for decades to treat

migraine, but is currently contraindicated in patients with hemiplegic migraine and basilar-type migraine (BTM). Objective.— To assess the safety of DHE in patients with symptoms of BTM that do not meet criteria for BTM. Methods.— Retrospective 上海皓元 analysis of patients admitted to an outpatient infusion room at a tertiary care center caring for patients with headache disorders. Incidence and types of adverse events as well as pain levels were reviewed and analyzed. Pain was assessed via the visual analog scale (VAS). Results.— Fifty consecutive patient records were reviewed. Mean age was 38.42. All patients met International Classification of Headache Disorders-II (ICHD-II) criteria for migraine and reported 1 posterior fossa symptom as defined by the ICHD-II criteria for BTM. Patients did not necessarily have a posterior fossa symptom in the attack treated. Eighteen percent (9/50) patients had adverse events, and only 3 of these halted DHE infusion. No patients had neurologic or cardiologic events. The mean decrease in pain was 3 points on the VAS (P < .0001).

5 FL hepatoepithelial-enriched cell preparations (c-KitDCD45−Ter1

5 FL hepatoepithelial-enriched cell preparations (c-KitDCD45−Ter119−), the remaining CD49fD cells neither differentiated nor survived in vitro. Indeed, direct cell-to-cell contact between the CD49fHCD41H and CD49fD populations was required to promote the hepatocyte differentiation of CD49fD cells. The addition of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and medium conditioned by E11.5 CD49fHCD41H MKPs STA-9090 produced a partial effect on CD49fD cells, inducing the formation of hepatoepithelial layers. This effect was abolished by anti-VEGF-A antibodies. Together, these findings strongly suggest that CD49fHCD41H MKPs are fundamental

to promote FL development, as proposed in adult liver regeneration. Conclusion: The cells of the MK lineage present in the developing mouse embryo liver promote the growth of hepatoepithelial cells in vitro through VEGF-A signaling and may http://www.selleckchem.com/products/pf-562271.html play a role in liver development in vivo. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;56:1934–1945) After gastrulation, genetic prepatterns are established in discrete areas of the embryo related to cell-lineage specification, cell differentiation, and morphogenesis. Hematopoiesis occurs in two phases in the embryo (primitive and definitive). Primitive hematopoiesis involves embryonic erythrocytes and myeloid cells, commencing in the yolk sac

(YS) and proceeding as a self-limiting process throughout gestation. By contrast, definitive lymphohematopoiesis begins in the YS and, in an autonomous manner, in the para-aortic splanchnopleura/aorta-gonads-mesonephros (P-Sp/AGM) niche, which later becomes the source of all lymphoid and hematopoietic cell lineages.1-3 Megakaryocytes (MKs)

are a particular blood cell type that share common features with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In the adult, CD45+CD9+ CD41++ MKs are found primarily in the bone marrow (BM) as a scattered polyploid population of large cells. These MKs are responsible for the production of platelets, subcellular fragments involved in coagulation and the regulation of angiogenesis.4 In the mouse embryo, clonogenic bipotential megakaryocyte/erythroid 上海皓元 progenitors (MEPs) appear in the YS at embryonic days 7.25 (E7.25) and E9.5, participating in primitive and definitive megakaryopoiesis, respectively.5, 6 At E10.5, large, immature reticulated platelets have been found in the bloodstream, and CD45−CD41H cells can be observed in vascular hematopoietic clusters.5, 7 With the discovery of thrombopoietin (TPO), MKs could be cultured, and platelets were generated in vitro from mature MKs, isolated by density purification, that produce long, pseudopodial cytoplasmic processes (i.e., proplatelets).8 After E10.

Infection was quantified by staining the co-cultures with an anti

Infection was quantified by staining the co-cultures with an anti-NS5A antibody (9E10) and appropriate secondary antibody, followed by flow cytometry. Huh7.5.1 cells were grown overnight in Huh7 media. The media was

removed, cells were washed, and fresh medium with the appropriate compounds was added to cells. Culture supernatants were harvested at 24 and 48 hours later, clarified by centrifugation, and stored at −80°C. Apolipoprotein B was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using manufacturer’s protocol (ALerCHEK, Portland, ME). MTP activity was measured ITF2357 using a commercially available fluorescence assay using a commercial kit (Roar Biomedical Inc., New York, NY) as described.22 Differences between means of readings were compared using a Student t test. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. We previously showed that silymarin

inhibits HCV RNA and protein expression in the HCVcc system FK506 with JFH-1 virus.6 Figure 1A demonstrates that, in addition to wild-type JFH-1 virus, silymarin also blocks replication of HCVcc chimeras, including constructs that contain the H77 (genotype 1a) and J6 (genotype 2a) structural genes in the JFH-1 nonstructural gene backbone. Inhibition of HCVcc was 50% for H77/JFH and 75% for J6/JFH chimeras. Thus, silymarin has antiviral actions against multiple HCVcc infectious systems. To determine whether silymarin could inhibit binding of HCV virions to cells, we performed virus-cell binding studies at 4°C under conditions in which virus binds to but does not enter cells.23 As shown in Fig. 1B, when silymarin was present only during virus-binding, there was little effect on HCV replication. However, if silymarin was added to cells immediately after binding and for the duration of the infection, HCV protein expression was severely impaired. The same effect was observed if silymarin was present during binding and for the duration of the experiment. Next, to determine whether silymarin blocked virus entry, we tested the effect of silymarin on viral pseudoparticle entry including HCVpp, VSVpp, and MLVpp. Figure 1C demonstrates that

silymarin inhibited the entry of all three pseudotyped viruses. We then examined 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 the effect of silymarin on the fusion of HCVpp with fluorescent liposomes, which examines the effects of compounds on lipid mixing and membrane fusion.24 As shown in Fig. 1D, silymarin drastically inhibited HCVpp-mediated fusion by 80% at 10 μM silymarin, whereas 20 μM led to a 90% reduction in fusion. DMSO, the solvent control, did not affect fusion. The IC50 of silymarin for membrane fusion inhibition was estimated at 5 μM, far below the doses of silymarin known to confer cytotoxicity in Huh7.5.1 cells (>80 μM, Supporting Fig. S2, Panel E). The data suggest that silymarin does not affect binding but inhibits the entry of HCV at the fusion stage.

Patients having a minor homozygote (rs8099917 GG or rs12979860 TT

Patients having a minor homozygote (rs8099917 GG or rs12979860 TT) were not found in this study, which is consistent with a recent report of the rarity of a minor homozygote in Japanese patients.3 IL28B minor patients were significantly associated with a higher γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) level and higher frequency of mutations at amino acid positions 70 and 91 of the HCV core region (glutamine or histidine mutation at amino acid position 70; methionine

mutation at amino acid position 91). NVR rate was significantly higher in IL28B minor patients than in IL28B major patients. Hepatic expression levels of cytoplasmic viral sensors (RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2) were significantly higher Idelalisib price in IL28B minor patients

than in IL28B major patients (Fig. 1). Similarly, expressions of ISG15 and USP18 were significantly higher in IL28B minor patients than in IL28B major patients (Fig. 1). In contrast, the hepatic expression of the adaptor molecule (IPS-1) was significantly lower in IL28B minor patients than that in IL28B major patients (Fig. 1). Hepatic expression of RNF125 was similar among IL28B genotypes (Fig. 1). IFNλ (IL28A/B) expression was higher in IL28B minor patients, but not statistically significant (Fig. 1). Because expression of RIG-I and IPS-1 were negatively correlated, the expression ratio of Ganetespib order RIG-I/IPS-1 in IL28B minor patients was significantly higher than in IL28B major patients (Fig. 1). Next, to assess the relationship between baseline medchemexpress hepatic gene expression and treatment efficacy, we compared levels of gene expression involving innate immunity and IFNλ based on the final virological

response (Fig. 2). Overall, hepatic expressions of cytoplasmic viral sensors and the ISG15/USP18 system in NVR patients were significantly higher than those in VR patients. In a similar but opposite manner, hepatic expressions of IPS-1 and RNF125 in NVR patients were significantly lower than that in VR patients, and the expression of IFNδ was higher in NVR patients, but the differences were not statistically significant. Expression ratio of RIG-I/IPS-1 was significantly higher in NVR patients than that in VR patients. Because hepatic expressions of the RIG-I/IPS-1 and ISG15/USP18 systems were significantly related both to IL28B minor and NVR patients, RIG-I and ISG15 expression levels and the RIG-I/IPS-1 ratio between VR and NVR patients were further stratified by IL28B genotype (Fig. 3). Even in the subgroup of IL28B minor patients, the expressions of RIG-I and ISG15 were significantly higher in NVR patients than those in VR patients. Similar tendencies were observed in a subgroup of IL28B major patients, in whom the RIG-I/IPS-1 expression ratio was significantly higher in NVR patients than in VR patients.