“Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an astrocyte-derived non-competi

“Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an astrocyte-derived non-competitive antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) and inhibits the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) competitively. The main aim of the present study was to examine the possible effects of KYNA (30 – 1000 nm), applied locally by reverse dialysis for 2 h, on extracellular GABA levels in the rat striatum. KYNA

concentration-dependently reduced GABA levels, with 300 nm KYNA causing a maximal reduction to ~60% of baseline concentrations. The effect of KYNA (100 nm) was prevented by co-application of galantamine (5 μm), an agonist at a site of the α7nAChR that is very similar to that targeted by KYNA. Infusion of 7-chlorokynurenic acid (100 nm), an NMDAR antagonist acting selectively at the glycineB site of AZD8055 cost the receptor, affected neither basal GABA levels nor the KYNA-induced reduction in GABA. Inhibition of endogenous KYNA formation selleck by reverse dialysis of (S)-4-(ethylsulfonyl)benzoylalanine (ESBA; 1 mm) increased extracellular GABA levels, reaching a peak of 156% of baseline levels after 1 h. Co-infusion of 100 nm KYNA abolished the effect of ESBA.

Qualitatively and quantitatively similar, bi-directional effects of KYNA on extracellular glutamate were observed in the same microdialysis samples. Taken together, the present findings suggest that fluctuations in endogenous KYNA levels, by modulating α7nAChR function, control extracellular GABA levels in the rat striatum. This effect may be relevant for a number of physiological and pathological processes involving the basal ganglia. “
“The brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system triggers a variety of neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress. Whether maternal behaviour and emotionality in lactation are modulated by CRF has rarely been investigated. In the present study, we measured CRF mRNA expression within the parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus in virgin and

lactating Wistar rats Tryptophan synthase bred for high (HAB) and low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviour or non-selected for anxiety (NAB). Further, we intracerebroventricularly infused synthetic CRF or the CRF receptor (CRF-R) antagonist D-Phe to manipulate CRF-R1/2 non-specifically in lactating HAB, LAB, and NAB dams, and monitored maternal care, maternal motivation, maternal aggression, and anxiety. The CRF mRNA expression in the parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus was higher in HAB vs. LAB rats independent of reproductive status. The lactation-specific decrease of CRF mRNA was confirmed in LAB and NAB dams but was absent in HAB dams. Intracerebroventricular CRF decreased maternal care under basal conditions in the home cage in all breeding lines and reduced attack behaviour in HAB and LAB dams during maternal defence. In contrast, D-Phe rescued maternal care after exposure to maternal defence in the home cage without influencing maternal aggression.

Therefore, after

Therefore, after selleck chemicals llc recommended treatment in those not reexposed, an increase in antibody titer in the first 6 to 12 months or a failure to reduce after 3 years, should not automatically justify re-treatment. Instead this should be based on symptoms, parasite identification, or eosinophilia.

We would like to acknowledge Elizabeth Matchett for her assistance in collecting the clinical data for this study. The authors state they have no conflicts of interest to declare. “
“With increased travel globally, more women travel while breastfeeding their infants as well as during pregnancy. The transfer of drugs and chemicals into human milk differs from transfer via umbilical cord during pregnancy. Because there is little see more evidence-based literature on recommendations for breastfeeding travelers, we review factors that influence drug passage into breast milk and available safety data on common medications that may be encountered by breastfeeding travelers. Biologic and immunologic events in the mother may affect the breastfeeding infant. We review those that are relevant to the breastfeeding woman who is preparing to travel. We also review

the use of vaccines in breastfeeding women and the mechanisms by which they could affect the infant. Physiologic changes that occur with breastfeeding involve the hormones oxytocin and prolactin. The hyperplasia of milk ducts and production of immunologically rich human milk occur through the feedback mechanism of suckling. Changes to the mother’s immune system following vaccine administration

should not differ from the non-breastfeeding state, though little research has been directed to this question. Breast milk does not adversely impact the response to vaccines administered directly to the infant. 1,2 Specific antibody responses to travel-related vaccines have not been studied in nursing mothers. Maternal plasma volume expands by 50% through pregnancy and returns to normal level in most women by 8 weeks postpartum. 3 This increases the volume of distribution of drugs administered, related to the amount of protein binding of the given compound. Although most medications transfer into human milk, many are found at low concentrations in breast milk and are relatively Leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase safe for the infant. The clinician should consider the risk of the drug versus the benefit of breastfeeding for the infant. Maternal, drug, and infant factors influence the amount of drug available to the nursing infant. The factors influencing drug transfer from maternal circulation into breast milk include ionization, lipid solubility, molecular weight, half-life of drug, fat content of milk, maternal plasma protein binding, and blood level attained in the maternal circulation. 4 Plasma protein binding affects the degree of drug penetration into breast milk. Although the protein-bound fraction remains in the maternal circulation, unbound drug can be transferred into human milk.

This region has not been shown to be involved in the binding of l

This region has not been shown to be involved in the binding of l-arginine or in the hexamerization of the protein. This domain could be implicated

in a specific interaction with the other Xer system factors, such as the PepA protein. Our experiments demonstrate that the α6-helix of ArgR can be mutated without reducing the protein’s ability to repress the expression of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis or its capacity to bind l-arginine or to form higher order structures. However, when the Epigenetics Compound Library price end of this helix is disrupted by additional residues, or by premature termination, its role in Xer site-specific recombination is severely hindered. Further studies will demonstrate the exact role of this region in the formation of the recombinational synapse and how it interacts with the Xer recombinational machinery. We would like to thank Dr Jannette Carey for supplying us with E. coli strain EC146(λAZ-7), Finbarr Hayes for supplying us with

plasmid pFH395, Aboud Mounayerdji for assistance with β-galactosidase assays and François Aller, Loubna Jouan, Manuela Villion, Maxime Leroux and Hua Liu for their assistance and advice. This work selleckchem was supported by Discovery grant 106085-06 from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. “
“Cell-surface expression of phytase allows the enzyme to be expressed and anchored on the cell surface of Pichia pastoris. This avoids tedious downstream processes such

as purification and separation involved with extracellular expression. In addition, yeast cells with anchored proteins can be used as a whole-cell biocatalyst with high value added. In this work, the phytase was expressed on the cell surface of P. pastoris with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchoring system. The recombinant phytase was shown to be located at the cell surface. The cell-surface phytase exhibited high activity with an optimal temperature Ureohydrolase at 50–55 °C and two optimal pH peaks of 3 and 5.5. The surface-displayed phytase also exhibited similar pH stability and pepsin resistance to the native and secreted phytase. In vitro digestibility test showed that P. pastoris containing cell-surface phytase released phosphorus from feedstuff at a level similar to secreted phytase. Yeast cells expressing phytase also provide additional nutrients, especially biotin and niacin. Thus, P. pastoris with phytase displayed on its surface has a great potential as a whole-cell supplement to animal feed. Phosphorus is largely stored in most foods of plant origin as phytic acid (Oh et al., 2004). Monogastric animals lack a sufficient level of phytate-hydrolyzing enzymes in their gastrointestinal tracts, and so are unable to digest phytate efficiently. Furthermore, phytic acid acts as an antinutritional factor by interfering with absorption of divalent cations and amino acids in the gut.

The present study investigated effects of guanfacine on specific

The present study investigated effects of guanfacine on specific attention and memory tasks in aged monkeys. Four Rhesus monkeys (18–21 years old) performed a sustained attention (continuous performance) task and spatial working memory task (self-ordered spatial search) that has minimal demands on attention. Effects of a low (0.0015 mg/kg) and high (0.5 mg/kg) dose of gunafacine

were examined. Low-dose guanfacine improved performance on the attention task [i.e. decreased omission errors by 50.8 ± 4.3% (P = 0.001) without an effect on commission errors] but failed to improve performance on the spatial working memory task. The high dose of guanfacine had no effects on either task. Guanfacine may have a preferential Sirolimus mouse effect on some aspects of attention in normal aged monkeys and in doing so may also improve performance on other tasks, including some working memory tasks that have relatively high attention demands. “
“Recent human behavioral studies have shown semantic and/or lexical processing for stimuli presented below the auditory perception threshold. Here, we investigated electroencephalographic responses to words, pseudo-words and complex sounds, in conditions where phonological and lexical categorizations were behaviorally successful (categorized stimuli) or unsuccessful

(uncategorized stimuli). Data showed a greater decrease in low-beta power at left-hemisphere click here temporal electrodes for categorized non-lexical sounds (complex sounds and pseudo-words) than for categorized lexical sounds (words), consistent with the signature of

a failure in lexical access. Similar differences between lexical and non-lexical sounds were observed for uncategorized stimuli, although these stimuli did not yield evoked AZD9291 in vivo potentials or theta activity. The results of the present study suggest that behaviorally uncategorized stimuli were processed at the lexical level, and provide evidence of the neural bases of the results observed in previous behavioral studies investigating auditory perception in the absence of stimulus awareness. “
“Light intensity is an important determinant of diverse physiological and behavioral responses within the non-image-forming visual system. Thresholds differ among various photic responses, namely control of circadian rhythms, vigilance state, activity level and pupil constriction, but the mechanisms that regulate photosensitivity are not known. Calbindin D28k (CalB) is a calcium-binding protein associated with light processing in the mammalian circadian clock. Loss-of-function studies indicate that CalB-deficient mice (CalB−/−) have deficits in their ability to entrain to light–dark cycles.

These microorganisms influence each other’s physiology and metabo

These microorganisms influence each other’s physiology and metabolism as well as the health of the plants that they might colonize (de Boer et al., 2005). One study showed that several species of bacteria could influence trap formation in four nematode-trapping fungal isolates of Dactylaria brochopaga and Arthrobotrys conoides to trap nematode Panagrellus silusiae (Rucker & Zachariah, 1987). It was suggested that two substances, one produced by bacteria

and one by the prey, synergistically induce trap formation. Some bacteria associated with Arthrobotrys oligospora could enhance in vitro fungal activity against the ICG-001 nematode and were called nematophagous fungus helper bacteria, but the mechanisms involved in the helper function were not

known (Duponnois et al., 1998). In this study, three bacteria that could induce trap formation (CT and MT) in A. oligospora were isolated from agricultural soil. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to identify these bacteria. To further understand the mechanism behind trap formation, we used a plate assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. With these methods, we investigated the impact of bacteria on Y-27632 concentration fungal trap formation. We also studied the trap formation (CT and MT) in nematode-trapping fungi by bacteria. Bacterial strains were cultured in nutrient agar. The nematode-trapping fungi used in this study are listed in Table 1. All nematode-trapping fungi were grown at 25 °C on corn meal agar supplemented with K2HPO4 2 g L−1. Conidia

from 1–4-week cultures were used for inoculation of the experiments. Suspensions of conidia were prepared using sterile water with 0.01% Triton Metformin purchase X-100 and used immediately. Conidial densities were adjusted to 106 conidia mL−1 in sterile water. A sandy agricultural soil studied previously for the presence of nematophagous fungi (Zhang et al., 2005) was used. Areas of 15 m2 of soil were selected at random and two independent rhizosphere samples were taken from each area. Each of the rhizosphere samples comprised total roots from five randomly selected wheat plants. The roots were shaken vigorously to eliminate the soil not tightly associated with roots. About 100 rhizosphere samples were taken and mixed thoroughly in a plastic bag to yield a composite sample. One gram of the composite sample was suspended in 5.0 mL of sterile-distilled water, vortexed (1 min) and sonicated (1 min) in an ultrasonic cleaner. Soil dilution plates (10−5) were prepared on nutrient agar and incubated for 7 days at 25°C. Eighty colonies of bacteria were selected at random for the ability to induce trap formation. After culturing all isolates at 25°C for 3 days in a 25-mL vial containing 10 mL nutrient broth (0.1 mg mL−1, final concentration), the cultures were evaluated for trap formation. The negative controls were nutrient broth (0.1 mg mL−1, final concentration) without bacteria.

, 2006; Abram et al, 2008; O’Byrne & Karatzas, 2008), thus it se

, 2006; Abram et al., 2008; O’Byrne & Karatzas, 2008), thus it seemed logical to Selleck RGFP966 assess if SigB function contributed to the development of L. monocytogenes GASP. When examined for long-term survival in culture, a ΔsigB mutant exhibited the expected death and long-term stationary growth phases during the course of a 12-day incubation in BHI at 37 °C (Fig. 4a). Similar to the prfA* mutant, ΔsigB long-term stationary phase cultures exhibited final stable bacterial CFU numbers that were approximately twofold lower than those maintained by wild-type L. monocytogenes (Fig. 4a). SigB is thus

required for the optimal fitness of L. monocytogenes during the long-term stationary growth phase. ΔsigB mutant bacteria from 12-day-old cultures were added to 1-day-old mutant cultures at a final ratio of 1 : 100. Over 10 days, bacteria from the 12-day-old culture outcompeted bacteria of the 1-day-old culture such that the ratio at day 10 was 1 : 1 (Fig. 4b), indicating that the ΔsigB mutant

retained its ability to express the GASP phenotype. However, similar to the phenotype expressed by the prfA* mutant, the GASP phenotype exhibited by the ΔsigB strain was not as robust as that exhibited by wild-type L. monocytogenes (Fig. 4b). Although bacteria derived from 12-day-old wild type cultures increased 1000-fold in comparison to 1-day-old wild-type bacteria PI3K Inhibitor Library (Fig. 4b), the bacterial numbers of a 12-day-old ΔsigB culture increased approximately 100-fold in comparison to those of the 1-day-old ΔsigB culture (Fig. 4b). Similar to the situation described above for prfA* strains, the failure of the ΔsigB mutant to express a robust GASP phenotype could reflect an impaired ability to develop GASP or may indicate that the loss of SigB contributed to a partial GASP phenotype for 1-day-old cultures. To distinguish between these two possibilities, the CI between wild type 12-day-old cultures and 1-day-old wild type or ΔsigB cultures was assessed. If the ΔsigB mutant expresses a partial GASP phenotype as the

result of the loss of SigB, then the competitive advantage of a wild-type 12-day-old culture should be less in comparison to 1-day-old ΔsigB than in comparison to Tryptophan synthase 1-day-old wild type. Interestingly, the difference in the competitive advantage of wild-type 12-day-old cultures observed vs. 1-day-old wild-type or 1-day-old ΔsigB was minimal (Fig. 4c). SigB contributes to L. monocytogenes fitness in broth culture, based on the competitive advantage of 1-day-old wild-type strains vs. 1-day-old ΔsigB mutants (Fig. 4c). Thus, in spite of ΔsigB mutants exhibiting a broth culture fitness defect, the overall magnitude of the competitive defect observed between 12-day-old wild-type L. monocytogenes and 1-day-old wild-type strains and ΔsigB mutants was similar rather than exacerbated for ΔsigB, suggesting that the loss of SigB may indeed contribute to the development of the GASP phenotype. Taken together, these data indicate a role for SigB in L.

In addition, this study opens perspectives for the search for dru

In addition, this study opens perspectives for the search for drugs that influence these processes and that could have therapeutic potential for the treatment of ALS. “
“Audiotactile integration has been studied using various experimental setups but so far crossmodal congruency effects (CCEs) have not been found for tactile targets paired with auditory distractors. In the present study we investigated selleck chemicals whether audiotactile CCEs exist and, if so, whether these CCEs have similar characteristics

to those found by previous authors with visual distractors. We measured audiotactile CCEs by attaching four vibrators to the backs of participants and presented auditory stimuli from four loudspeakers placed, in separate blocks, at different distances in front of or behind the participant’s body. Participants discriminated the elevation of tactile stimuli while

ignoring the auditory distractors. CCEs were found only when participants were provided with noninformative vision of their own body, as seen from behind via a camera and head-mounted display; they were absent when participants OSI-906 mouse did not view their body. Furthermore, in contrast to visuotactile CCEs, audiotactile CCEs did not depend on whether the distractors were presented on the same or different side as the tactile targets. The present study provides the first demonstration of an audiotactile CCE: incongruent auditory distractors impaired performance oxyclozanide on a tactile elevation discrimination task relative to performance with congruent distractors. We show that audiotactile CCEs differ from visuotactile CCEs as they do not appear to be as sensitive to the spatial relations between the distractors and the tactile stimuli. We also show that these CCEs are modulated by vision of the body. “
“In the published paper

of Girardet et al. (2010), the graphs comparing the mean synaptic innervation of VIP dendrites by GABAergic terminals (GABA+) and non-GABAergic terminals (GABA−) have been inverted (Fig. 4E). The correct data were those that had been described in the text (no day-night variations vs 62% increase in the respective synaptic density of GABAergic terminals and non-GABAergic terminals. The authors apologize for this error. “
“Cover Illustration: Photomicrographs of embryonic zebrafish (20, 22, and 25 hours post fertilization) highlight the rapid development of this organism. During this time, the locomotor apparatus of the embryo is becoming functional. Zebrafish embryos exposed to nicotine exhibit a robust motor output which is mediated by activation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In general, neuronal nAChRs are comprised of α and β subunits. For details, see the article of Menelaou et al. (Activation of α2A-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediates nicotine-induced motor output in embryonic zebrafish. Eur. J. Neurosci., 40, 2225–2240).

Due to poor survival with conventional therapy, frequent causes

Due to poor survival with conventional therapy, frequent causes

of death are related to progressive disease, opportunistic infection or other HIV-related complications. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients with the unique presentation of PEL and cytological analysis of the involved effusion fluid. The definitive diagnosis rests upon the morphological, immune see more phenotype and virological content of the affected tumour cells. Morphologically the cells are large, have round-to-irregular nuclei and conspicuous nucleoli, and may have the appearance of immunoblasts, plasmablasts and/or anaplastic forms [8]. Detection of evidence of viral infection is a sine qua non to make the diagnosis, and although serological evidence of infection informs of previous infection, immunohistochemical staining

for LANA-1 expression is the standard for detecting HHV8 in tumour samples. Quantitative measurements of HHV8 viral load are available but no studies have yet demonstrated correlation of viral mass with prognosis or response to therapy. The immunophenotype of PEL cells displays a ‘null’ lymphocyte phenotype with expression of CD45 but absence of characteristic B cell markers (CD19, CD20, CD79a) and T cell markers (CD3, CD4, CD8). The cells express activation markers (CD30, CD38, CD71, Nivolumab order HLA DR) and plasma cell markers (CD138) [8]. The cells are of B cell origin as evidenced by the presence of immunoglobulin Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) gene rearrangements and somatic hypermutation [9]. Cytogenetic evaluation has revealed complex karyotypes but no recurrent chromosomal abnormalities [10]. The differential diagnosis from that of another NHL subtype associated with a lymphomatous effusion is the clinical appearance without solid LN masses and the requirement for HHV8 evidence and typical immunophenotype, which should leave little room for error. Due to the low incidence of the disease, randomized clinical trials are not feasible and as such, there is no clear standard of care established to treat PEL. Since the

widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection has declined and, in particular, treatment results for HIV-associated lymphoma have improved. Unfortunately the results for HIV-associated PEL remain disappointing and no specific treatment regimen is currently recommended for PEL. There have been sporadic case reports of HAART-induced responses alone [11] and the use of HAART in any treatment regimen is recommended. In a single institution study [12], which included 11 cases of PEL, treatment with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone) resulted in an overall response rate of 42% and median survival of 6 months despite standard concomitant HAART.

“Movements of the fingers, hand and arm involve overlappin

“Movements of the fingers, hand and arm involve overlapping neural representations in primary motor cortex (M1). Monkey M1 exhibits a core–surround organisation in which cortical representation of the hand and fingers is surrounded by representations of the wrist, elbow and shoulder. A potentially homologous organisation in human M1 has only been observed in a single study, a functional MRI (fMRI) study by [J.D. Meier, T.N. Aflalo, S. Kastner & M.S. Graziano.(2008) J Neurophysiol, 100(4), 1800–1812]. The results of their study suggested a double representation

of the wrist in human M1, an unprecedented finding. Our purpose was to document and simultaneously provide evidence that would extend the presence of double representation of the wrist to that of the elbow. Using fMRI, we observed somatotopic maps in M1 and the supplementary motor area selleck inhibitor (SMA), the only other cortical area that showed

robust within-limb somatotopy during self-timed finger, wrist and elbow movements. We observed double wrist and elbow representation that bracketed finger fMRI responses in M1 and the SMA. Our results show that the cortical locations of these double representations are well predicted by local cortical anatomy. Double representation of the wrist and elbow is important because it violates the traditional somatotopic progression in M1 but it is consistent with the representation of synergistic movements involving adjacent effectors. “
“Nursing in the rabbit is under circadian control, and pups have a daily anticipatory behavioral arousal synchronized to this unique event, but it is not known which signal is the main entraining cue. In the present PD-166866 study, we hypothesized that food is the main entraining signal. Using mother-deprived pups, we tested the effects of artificial feeding on the synchronization of locomotor behavior, plasma glucose, corticosterone, c-Fos (FOS) and PERIOD1 (PER1) rhythms in suprachiasmatic, supraoptic, paraventricular Tolmetin and tuberomammillary nuclei. At postnatal day 1, an intragastric tube was placed by gastrostomy. The next day and for

the rest of the experiment, pups were fed with a milk formula through the cannula at either 02:00 h or 10:00 h [feeding time = zeitgeber time (ZT)0]. At postnatal days 5–7, pups exhibited behavioral arousal, with a significant increase in locomotor behavior 60 min before feeding. Glucose levels increased after feeding, peaking at ZT4–ZT12 and then declining. Corticosterone levels were highest around the time of feeding, and then decreased to trough concentrations at ZT12–ZT16, increasing again in anticipation of the next feeding bout. In the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus had a rhythm of FOS and PER1 that was not significantly affected by the feeding schedule. Conversely, the supraoptic, paraventricular and tuberomammillary nuclei had rhythms of both FOS and PER1 induced by the time of scheduled feeding.

Several phylotypes were affiliated with unclassified environmenta

Several phylotypes were affiliated with unclassified environmental clone groups, UBSedI to VI and UBMnI and II, as defined in the present study (Fig. S2e). Phylotypes in the Gammaproteobacteria were abundant in the clone libraries from the Mn crust and sediment samples (24.0% and 23.5% of the total

clone numbers, respectively; Fig. 3). These phylotypes were related to not yet cultivated environmental clones recovered from seafloor basaltic rocks (Lysnes et al., 2004; Mason et al., BLZ945 cell line 2007, 2008; Santelli et al., 2008) rather than cultured species (<95% similarity) (Fig. S2b). In contrast, phylotypes in the Alphaproteobacteria were abundant in the clone libraries from the seawater sample (44.3% of the total clone number). In particular, most of them were related to Candidatus Pelagibacter (SAR11 cluster, Rappéet al., 2002) and Sphingomonadales (Fig. S2c), groups from which members have often been recovered from deep-sea water of >1000 m water depth (García-Martínez & Rodríguez-Valera, 2000; Delong et al., 2006; Kato et al., 2009a, c). Comparative analysis showed that the microbial community composition of the Mn crust was different from those of the sediment and overlying seawater. The differences

among the three communities were supported by the UniFrac significance and P values (<0.01). To compare the microbial community composition, the shared phylotype numbers among the libraries from the crust, sediment Acesulfame Potassium and seawater

samples were estimated www.selleckchem.com/products/bmn-673.html using sons. The Mn crust and sediment communities shared few or no phylotypes with the seawater community (Fig. 4). The Mn crust community contained a fraction of phylotypes recovered from the sediment sample (20% of the total phylotype richness estimates of the Mn crust; Fig. 4). Thus, 80% of the total phylotypes richness estimates of the Mn crust community were unique compared with the sediment communities. In fact, unique phylotypes of the Mn crust were observed in the phylogenetic trees (Fig. S2). Several phylotypes in MGI were shared between the Mn crust and sediment, but not between the Mn crust and seawater (Fig. S2a) as described above. Phylotypes related to the genus Nitrosospira in the Betaproteobacteria were unique in the Mn crust (Fig. S2b). Representative clone 953Mn48u has 97% similarity to the ammonia-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Nitrosospira multiformis (Watson et al., 1971). Phylotypes related to the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae in the Gammaproteobacteria were also unique in the library of the Mn crust (Fig. S2b). Representative clone 953Mn100u has 94% similarity to the arsenite-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii (Hoeft et al.