Our data show that this is not the case, implying the lack of any major iron regulatory role of putative muscle-derived sHjv under physiological conditions. We do not expect that the small genetic background differences of the mice would substantially affect iron parameters, as between distinct pure inbred strains.43, 44 Nevertheless, direct measurement of sHjv levels in the serum of mice with tissue-specific disruption of Hjv and wildtype controls, as well as assessment of its capacity to inhibit
BMP signaling, are required to further validate the origin and the function of circulating sHjv. In conclusion, our overall data demonstrate that hepatic Hjv is necessary and sufficient to prevent iron overload and control hepcidin expression, whereas muscle Hjv is dispensable. Similar conclusions were drawn in a report that was recently published while this BGB324 mouse article was under review.45 We thank Dr. Mike Rudnicki (University of Ottawa) for the MCK-Cre mice and Dr. Nancy PD0325901 research buy Andrews (Duke University) for the Hjv−/− mice. We also thank Dr. Naciba Benlimame for assistance with histology. K.P. holds a Chercheur National career award from the Fonds de la Recherche en Santé du Quebéc (FRSQ). K.G. is supported by doctoral awards from the J. Latsis and A. Onassis Public Benefit Foundations. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article.
“Aim: The aim of this prospective study was to determine cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) cases in a tertiary care hospital in India and to study its clinical presentations and outcome following treatment. Methods: Consecutive children with chronic diarrhea from June 2004 to December 2007 were evaluated with hemogram, anti-endomysial antibody, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy and intestinal biopsies. Initial diagnosis of CMPA was based on characteristic intestinal biopsy (> 6 eosinophils/HPF) and diagnosis was confirmed by positive milk challenge. Results: Forty CMPA cases (25 boys, with a mean age of 17.2 ± 7.8 months and symptom duration
of 8.3 ± 6.2 months) presented with diarrhea (bloody in 16, watery in 16, combined in three, recurrent hematemesis in two, rectal bleeding in one and one case each with pain in the abdomen with vomiting and anemia with occult bleeding). Sigmoidoscopy revealed aphthous ulcers in 82% of cases and rectal biopsy was positive in 97% of cases. All children improved on a milk-free diet. Milk challenge was positive in 100% of cases when it was done early (within 6 months). On follow up of 15 ± 9 months, milk was successfully restarted in 25 cases after a median milk-free period of 15 months, 10 were still on a milk-free diet and five were lost to follow up while on a milk-free diet. Conclusions: CMPA is not uncommon in a developing country such as India.