“Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an astrocyte-derived non-competitive antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) and inhibits the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) competitively. The main aim of the present study was to examine the possible effects of KYNA (30 – 1000 nm), applied locally by reverse dialysis for 2 h, on extracellular GABA levels in the rat striatum. KYNA
concentration-dependently reduced GABA levels, with 300 nm KYNA causing a maximal reduction to ~60% of baseline concentrations. The effect of KYNA (100 nm) was prevented by co-application of galantamine (5 μm), an agonist at a site of the α7nAChR that is very similar to that targeted by KYNA. Infusion of 7-chlorokynurenic acid (100 nm), an NMDAR antagonist acting selectively at the glycineB site of AZD8055 cost the receptor, affected neither basal GABA levels nor the KYNA-induced reduction in GABA. Inhibition of endogenous KYNA formation selleck by reverse dialysis of (S)-4-(ethylsulfonyl)benzoylalanine (ESBA; 1 mm) increased extracellular GABA levels, reaching a peak of 156% of baseline levels after 1 h. Co-infusion of 100 nm KYNA abolished the effect of ESBA.
Qualitatively and quantitatively similar, bi-directional effects of KYNA on extracellular glutamate were observed in the same microdialysis samples. Taken together, the present findings suggest that fluctuations in endogenous KYNA levels, by modulating α7nAChR function, control extracellular GABA levels in the rat striatum. This effect may be relevant for a number of physiological and pathological processes involving the basal ganglia. “
“The brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system triggers a variety of neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress. Whether maternal behaviour and emotionality in lactation are modulated by CRF has rarely been investigated. In the present study, we measured CRF mRNA expression within the parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus in virgin and
lactating Wistar rats Tryptophan synthase bred for high (HAB) and low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviour or non-selected for anxiety (NAB). Further, we intracerebroventricularly infused synthetic CRF or the CRF receptor (CRF-R) antagonist D-Phe to manipulate CRF-R1/2 non-specifically in lactating HAB, LAB, and NAB dams, and monitored maternal care, maternal motivation, maternal aggression, and anxiety. The CRF mRNA expression in the parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus was higher in HAB vs. LAB rats independent of reproductive status. The lactation-specific decrease of CRF mRNA was confirmed in LAB and NAB dams but was absent in HAB dams. Intracerebroventricular CRF decreased maternal care under basal conditions in the home cage in all breeding lines and reduced attack behaviour in HAB and LAB dams during maternal defence. In contrast, D-Phe rescued maternal care after exposure to maternal defence in the home cage without influencing maternal aggression.