MK801-induced neurodegeneration

MK801-induced neurodegeneration PF-02341066 price reached its peak at 72 h. Degenerating somas were restricted to layer IV of the granular subdivision of the retrosplenial cortex, and were accompanied by suppression of Egr-1 immunolabeling. Terminal degeneration extended to selected layers of the retrosplenial, somatosensory and parahippocampal

cortices, which are target areas of retrosplenial cortex. Induction of FosB/Delta FosB by MK801 also extended to the same cortical layers affected by terminal degeneration, likely reflecting the damage of synaptic connectivity. In orchiectomized males, the neurodegenerative and functional effects of MK801 were exacerbated. Degenerative somas in layer IV of the retrosplenial cortex significantly increased, with a parallel enhancement of terminal degeneration and FosB/Delta FosB-expression in the mentioned cortical structures, but no additional areas were affected. These observations reveal that synaptic dysfunction/degeneration

in the retrosplenial, somatosensory and parahippocampal cortices might underlie the long-lasting impairments induced by NMDA-A. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The Nipah virus (NiV) phosphoprotein ( P) gene encodes check details the C, P, V, and W proteins. P, V, and W, have in common an amino-terminal domain sufficient to bind STAT1, inhibiting its interferon (IFN)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. P is also essential for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase function. C is encoded by an alternate open reading frame (ORF) within the common amino-terminal domain. Mutations within residues 81 to 113 of P impaired its polymerase cofactor function, DNA ligase as assessed by a minireplicon assay, but these mutants retained STAT1 inhibitory function. Mutations within the residue 114 to 140 region were identified that abrogated interaction with and inhibition of STAT1 by P, V, and W without disrupting P polymerase cofactor function. Recombinant NiVs were then generated. A G121E mutation, which abrogated inhibition of STAT1, was introduced

into a C protein knockout background (C(ko)) because the mutation would otherwise also alter the overlapping C ORF. In cell culture, relative to the wild-type virus, the C(ko) mutation proved attenuating but the G121E mutant virus replicated identically to the C(ko) virus. In cells infected with the wild-type and C(ko) viruses, STAT1 was nuclear despite the absence of tyrosine phosphorylation. This latter observation mirrors what has been seen in cells expressing NiV W. In the G121E mutant virus-infected cells, STAT1 was not phosphorylated and was cytoplasmic in the absence of IFN stimulation but became tyrosine phosphorylated and nuclear following IFN addition. These data demonstrate that the gene for NiV P encodes functions that sequester inactive STAT1 in the nucleus, preventing its activation and suggest that the W protein is the dominant inhibitor of STAT1 in NiV-infected cells.

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