Median age was 60 years (range 37 to 82) and 31 patients (73 8%)

Median age was 60 years (range 37 to 82) and 31 patients (73.8%) were male. The median greatest tumor dimension was 3.4 cm (range 1.8 to 6.1). The Mann-Whitney U, chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to compare

bleeding and complications. The paired t and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare glomerular filtration rates. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival.

Results: We found 32 tumors with a greatest dimension of 4 cm or less and 10 with a greatest dimension of 4 to 7 cm. Median blood loss was 82.5 ml (range 15 to 210). Overall 7 complications (16.6%) occurred, including postoperative fever in 4 cases (Clavien grade II) and prolonged urinary leakage in 3 (Clavien grade Pictilisib III). The PADUA (preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical) score was associated with prolonged urinary leakage (p = 0.03) but not with overall complications. No patient had positive surgical margins. The glomerular filtration rate did not differ before vs 12 months after surgery. Three-year cancer specific, cumulative and progression-free survival was 100%, 97.3% and 96.4%, respectively.

Conclusions: Zero ischemia, 10058-F4 laparoscopic radio frequency ablation assisted tumor enucleation of renal cell carcinoma is a safe, effective nephron sparing treatment that provides excellent oncological and functional outcomes.”
“The aim was to determine the extent

and time course of motor and perceptual learning in a procedural learning task, and the relation of these two processes. Because environmental constraints modulate the relative impact of different learning mechanisms, we chose a simple learning task similar to real-life exercise. Thirty-four healthy individuals

performed a visuomotor serial reaction time task. Learning blocks with high stimulus-response compatibility were practiced repeatedly; in between these, participants performed test blocks with the same or a different (mirror-inverted, or new) stimulus sequence and/or with the same or a different (mirror-inverted) stimulus-response allocation. This design allowed us to measure the progress of motor learning and perceptual learning independently. Results showed that in the learning blocks, a steady reduction of the reaction times indicated that – as expected – participants improved their skills continuously. Analysis of the test blocks indicated that both motor learning and perceptual learning were significant. The two mechanisms were correlated (r=0.62, P<0.001). However, their time course was different: the impact of motor learning increased strongly from earlier to later intervals, whereas the progress of perceptual learning was more stable but slower. In conclusion, in a simple visuomotor learning task, participants can learn the motor sequence and the stimulus sequence in parallel. The positive correlation of motor and perceptual learning suggests that the two mechanisms act in synergy and are not alternative opposing strategies.

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