Expanding these protocols to representatives of the evolutionary<

Expanding these protocols to representatives of the evolutionary

lineages depicted in our Figure 1 will be especially rewarding for reconstructing cell type evolution of basal metazoans. Single cell transcriptomics will also contribute to unravel the specific combinations of transcription factors acting upstream of the cellular modules. A growing body of evidence indicates that genes encoding protein modules are often co-regulated by limited number of transcription factors (‘selector genes’), such as LIM and POU homeodomain family proteins [53•• and 54]; these factors act via similar Selleck Epigenetics Compound Library cis-regulatory elements, thus forming so-called ‘programming modules’ [55 and 56]. Once sets of genes encoding cellular modules and their specifying transcription factors will be attributed, at larger scale, to specific cell types selleck products in different species, this will set the stage for the identification of homologous cell types. Also, it will be possible to elucidate sister cell type relationships within a given species. We predict that the combination of comparative genomics and comparative single cell-transcriptomics will boost our understanding of cell type evolution in

animals. Papers of particular interest, published within the period of review, have been highlighted as: • of special interest “
“Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 2014, 28:71–77 This review comes from a themed issue on Cell reprogramming, regeneration and repair Edited by José CR Silva and Renee A Reijo Pera http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gde.2014.09.012 0959-437X/©

2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Pluripotency is defined as the ability of a cell or group of cells to differentiate to Loperamide all the cells of an adult body, including germ cells. In nature, pluripotency is a transient feature that characterizes a group of cells in the preimplantation embryo (the inner cell mass in the blastocyst) and in the early peri- and post-implantation embryo (the epiblast). Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) can be derived in vitro from human blastocysts and are characterized by an undifferentiated and pluripotent state that can be perpetuated in time, indefinitely. hESCs provide a unique opportunity to both dissect the molecular mechanisms that are required to maintain pluripotency and model the ability to initiate differentiation and cell commitment within the developing embryo. In order to understand mechanisms that function in maintaining pluripotency and directing differentiation, it is beneficial to accurately identify the specific transcriptome of hESCs. Over the last decade, several methods based on Second Generation Sequencing (SGS) have been used to try to characterize the transcriptome.

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