This mini review will focus on recent advancements in the field made by challenging mutant and transgenic rodent models for the schizophrenia candidate gene neuregulin 1 (NRG1) with particular environmental factors. It will outline results obtained from mouse and rat models for various Nrg1
isoforms/isoform types (e.g., transmembrane domain Nrg1, Type II Nrg1), which have been exposed to different forms of stress (acute versus chronic, restraint versus social) and housing conditions (standard laboratory versus minimally enriched housing). These studies suggest Nrg1 as a prime candidate for GxE GM6001 interactions in schizophrenia rodent models and that the use of rodent models will enable a better understanding of GxE interactions and the underlying mechanisms.”
“Content-specific sub-systems of visual working memory (VWM) have been explored selleck inhibitor in many neuroimaging
studies with inconsistent findings and procedures across experiments. The present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a change detection task using a high number of trials and matched stimulus displays across object and location change (what vs. where) conditions. Furthermore, individual task periods were studied independently across conditions to identify differences corresponding to each task period. Importantly, this combination of task controls has not previously been described in the fMRI literature. Composite results revealed differential frontoparietal activation during each task period. A separation of object and location conditions yielded a distributed system buy AMN-107 of dorsal and ventral streams during the encoding of information corresponding to bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and lingual gyrus activation, respectively. Differential activity was also shown during the maintenance of information in middle frontal structures bilaterally for objects and the right IPL and left insula for locations.
Together, these results reflect a domain-specific dissociation spanning several cortices and task periods. Furthermore, differential activations suggest a general caudal-rostral separation corresponding to object and location memory, respectively.”
“BACKGROUND: Miliary tuberculosis (TB) is an unusual cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with ARDS caused by miliary TB admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).
DESIGN: A total of 67 patients were enrolled during the period 1999-2008.
RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 56 years (range 17-81), 19 (28.4%) were aged >71 years, and 38 (56.7%) were male. All-cause mortality in the ICU and hospital were respectively 58.2% and 61.2%. Of the total number of enrolled patients, 49 (73.1%) were prescribed anti-tuberculosis medication within 3 days of hospital admission. On the day of ARDS diagnosis (10.0 +/- 3.7 vs. 7.4 +/- 3.5, P = 0.