The exact reason for the undetectable IL-4 was unknown One

The exact reason for the undetectable IL-4 was unknown. One explanation might be the NIH mice used in this study. It is known that NIH mice predominate on cellular immunity. Another explanation might be timing of the serum sampling and possible posttranscriptional regulation of IL-4. No matter if IL-4 was measurable or not, anti-pertussis antibodies were significantly induced in mice immunized with each of the three recombinant

proteins. Previous vaccine efficacy trial in Sweden indicated that inclusion of Prn, Fim2 and Fim3 into acellular vaccine containing PT and FHA provided higher Copanlisib cost protection against pertussis. However, the contribution of individual components in the protection was not revealed [8]. Since Fim of B. pertussis facilitates a variety of binding capabilities as adhesins [35], some studies suggested that passive protection against B.

pertussis infection might be click here conferred due to the existence of higher titres of anti-Fim2 or anti-Fim3 antibodies which might transmigrate into the lower respiratory tract in mice [36, 37]. In contrast, the results from intranasal and intracerebral challenges with B. pertussis indicated very limited role played BIBW2992 order by rFims in bacterial clearance, although higher titres of anti-Fim antibodies have been observed in this study. These data suggest that rFim2 or rFim3 alone may not be enough to provide the protection against B. pertussis and that they should be used in combination with other vaccine components such as PT, FHA, and/or Prn. Conclusions B. pertussis proteins Prn, Fim2, and Fim3 can be genetically manipulated and expressed in a large amount in vitro. The three recombinant proteins can elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. Immunization with rPrn can confer certain protection in mouse infection models. These recombinant proteins, especially rPrn, have a potential for

the development Thymidine kinase of a new generation of APVs in developing countries such as China. Methods Bacterial strains and culture conditions B. pertussis strain CS (prn/fim2/fim3 allele type: 1/1/A), a Chinese strain isolated in Beijing and used for production of pertussis vaccine, has been described previously [9]. Genomic DNA of this strain was used to generate recombinant proteins. B. pertussis strain 18323 (prn/fim2/fim3 allele type: 6/1/A), an international reference strain, was used in the mouse intranasal and intracerebral challenge assays. B. pertussis strains were grown at 37°C on Bordet-Gengou (BG) agar (Difco) medium supplemented with 20% defibrinated sheep blood. E. coli strains BL21 (DE3) (Novagen, Germany) and M15 (Qiagen, Germany) were used for the protein expressions. They were cultured in Luria Broth (LB) medium at 37°C. Recombinant protein expression and purification Construction of recombinant DNA fragments, protein expression and purification were performed as described previously [38].

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