Recent neuroimaging studies demonstrate two striking results: the participation of modality-specific sensory, LY2090314 motor, and emotion systems in language comprehension, and the existence of large brain regions that participate in comprehension tasks but are
not modality-specific. These latter regions, which include the inferior parietal lobe and much of the temporal lobe, lie at convergences of multiple perceptual processing streams. These convergences enable increasingly abstract, supramodal representations of perceptual experience that support a variety of conceptual functions including object recognition, social cognition, language, and the remarkable human capacity to remember the past and imagine the future.”
“The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) may be a core component in the common molecular pathways for drug addiction. Moreover, studies using animal models of drug addiction have demonstrated that changing CaMKII activity or expression influences animals’ responses to the drugs of abuse. Here, we explored the roles of CaMKII in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell in the extinction and
reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior. Rats were trained to obtain intravenous morphine infusions through poking hole on a fixed-ratio one schedule. Selective CaMKII inhibitor myristoylated autocamtide-2-inhibitory peptide selleck screening library (myr-AIP) was injected into the NAc shell of rats after the acquisition of morphine selleckchem self-administration (SA) or before the reinstatement test. The results demonstrated that injection of myr-AIP after acquisition of morphine SA did not influence
morphine-seeking in the following extinction days and the number of days spent for reaching extinction criterion. However, pretreatment with myr-AIP before the reinstatement test blocked the reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior induced by morphine-priming. Our results strongly indicate that CaMKII activity in the NAc shell is essential to the relapse to morphine-seeking. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Boolean networks have been successfully used in modelling gene regulatory networks. However, for large networks, analysis by simulation becomes unfeasible. In this paper we propose a reduction method for Boolean networks that decreases the size of the network, while preserving important dynamical properties and topological features. As a result, the reduced network can be used to infer properties about the original network and to gain a better understanding of the role of network topology on the dynamics. In particular, we use the reduction method to study steady states of Boolean networks and apply our results to models of Th-lymphocyte differentiation and the lac operon. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.