Outcomes including safety, efficacy, and procedural efficiency we

Outcomes including safety, efficacy, and procedural efficiency were compared. Results: One hundred seven patients underwent bedside PDT in the MICU during this period. Forty-three RSL3 procedures (40.2%) were performed by the ST and 64 procedures (59.8%) were performed by IP. There was no statistical difference between the incidence of airway injury and infection between the two procedural groups. There were no deaths related to the performance

of PDT in our series. PDT was completed within 48 h of request in 100% of IP patients and 95% of ST patients (p = 0.08). Conclusions: There were no statistical differences in PDT between the ST and IP groups when comparing complications. There was a trend towards an increased efficiency in time to PDT after consultation within the IP PDT group. Trained IP can safely and effectively perform PDT. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“AimsTo review knowledge on cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in lower urinary tract function and dysfunction.

MethodsReview of MEDLINE using defined search terms, and manual analysis. selleck inhibitor Articles published in English were included.

Results and

DiscussionComponents of the endocannabinoid systemcannabinoid (CB) receptor types 1 and 2, anandamide, and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which degrades anandamide and related fatty-acid amideshave been located to lower urinary tract tissues of mice, rats, monkeys, and humans. Studies have located CB receptors in urothelium and sensory nerves and FAAH in the urothelium. CB receptor- and FAAH-related activities have also been reported in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Data on supraspinal CB functions in relation to micturition are lacking. Cannabinoids are reported to reduce sensory activity of isolated tissues, cause antihyperalgesia in animal studies of bladder inflammation, affect urodynamics

parameters reflecting sensory functions in animals models, and appear to have effects on storage symptoms in humans. FAAH inhibitors have affected sensory bladder functions and reduced bladder overactivity in rat selleck chemicals models. Cannabinoids may modify nerve-mediated functions of isolated lower urinary tract tissues.

ConclusionsEvidence suggests components of the endocannabinoid system are involved in regulation of bladder function, possibly at several levels of the micturition pathway. It is unclear if either CB receptor has a dominant role in modification of sensory signals or if differences exist at peripheral and central nervous sites. Amplification of endocannabinoid activity by FAAH inhibitors may be an attractive drug target in specific pathways involved in LUTS. Neurourol. Urodynam. 33:46-53, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Background: High-quality health care is safe, effective, efficient, timely, patient-centered, and equitable.

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