Despite the fact that adherence to daily medication has been bett

Despite the fact that adherence to daily medication has been better in schizophrenic patients dosed with atypical antipsychotics than conventional antipsychotics, Dolder et al. recorded that poor compliance issues persisted in schizophrenic patients [24]. A critical factor in achieving beneficial long term outcomes is in establishing a mechanism wherein the schizophrenic patients demonstrate adherence to treatment cycles. Infrequent intake Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of medication or partial dosing is far more common than complete non-adherence to therapy posing a significant challenge to patients,

caregivers, and society at large. Robinson et al. reported a five-fold increase in the risk of relapse with patients who partially adhered to treatment [25]. Incidence of relapse in schizophrenic patients carries a large economic and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical personal cost. Relapsed patients suffer from reversal of gains achieved during therapy, loss of function, demoralization, loss of confidence, danger to self or others, and loss of job leading to a loss in productivity and opportunity. Further, rehospitalization of relapsed patients places Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a huge economic burden on existing healthcare system in the US [26]. Continuous delivery of the atypical antipsychotic is an effective way to ensure adherence to therapy with minimal relapse. Analogous to the first generation

antipsychotics, injectable depot formulations of Risperidone were developed and marketed. Studies on long Daporinad cell line acting Risperidone revealed its efficaciousness Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder [8, 27]. Extended treatment with long acting Risperidone also reduced movement disorders relative to baseline in patients clinically stable on a variety of antipsychotic drugs [28]. However, a major drawback of the currently marketed long acting Risperidone, administered every 15 days, necessitates an additional supplementation with oral Risperidone for three weeks after administration Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the

injectable formulation. While challenges related to patient compliance continue to persist with oral therapy, oral supplementation is necessary due to the delayed response profile obtained with the injectable preparation where old drug release occurs approximately 3 weeks after administration. Published literature cites that in vivo levels peak 4-5 weeks after dosing, for a 7-week duration of action [27, 29]. Co-administration of oral Risperidone, while necessary in an inpatient or outpatient setting, is inconvenient and poses major compliance issues in patients with psychotic disorders. Additionally, costs incurred with co-administration therapy of Risperidone are high [30, 31]. Thus, the latency in drug release is a major shortcoming of the long acting Risperidone depot preparation. Therefore, there is a strong need for a non-oral controlled delivery dosage form for this drug.

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