Bone marrow cells from 5 male C57BL/6 mice were flushed from the

Bone marrow cells from 5 male C57BL/6 mice were flushed from the femurs and tibias with Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM). After a homogeneous cell suspension was achieved, cells were centrifuged (400 × g for 10 min), resuspended in DMEM and added to Ficoll-Hypaque. The isolated cells were counted in a Neubauer chamber selleck compound with Trypan Blue for evaluation of viability. Saline or BMDMC were slowly injected into the jugular vein. A

small aliquot of mononuclear cells was used for immunophenotypic characterization of the injected cell population. Cell characterization was performed by flow cytometry using antibodies CD45 (leukocyte), CD34 (hematopoietic precursors), CD3, CD8, and CD4 (T lymphocyte), CD14 (monocytes and macrophages), CD11b, CD29 and CD45- (non-hematopoietic precursors), all from BD Biosciences, USA ( Abreu et al., 2011a). Twenty-four female and five male C57BL/6 mice

(20–25 g) were used in this study. The animals were kept under specific pathogen-free conditions in the animal care facility of Laboratory of Pulmonary Investigation, selleck products Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Females were randomly assigned into control (C) and elastase-induced emphysema (E) groups. In C group, sterile saline solution (0.9% NaCl) was intratracheally (i.t.) instilled (50 μl), while in E group, mice received porcine pancreatic elastase i.t. (0.1 UI, 50 μl of saline solution, PPE – Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO, USA). Saline and PPE were administered once a week during 4 weeks.

For intratracheal instillation, mice were anesthetized with sevoflurane. A midline cervical incision (1 cm) was made to expose the trachea, and saline or PPE were instilled using a bent 27-gauge tuberculin needle. The cervical incision was closed with 5.0 silk suture and the mice returned to their cage. Three hours after the first instillation of saline or PPE, animals were further randomized into subgroups receiving saline IKBKE solution (0.9% NaCl, 50 μl, SAL) or BMDMC (2 × 106 cells diluted in 50 μl saline solution, CELL) through the left jugular vein (Fig. 1). For acquisition of the images, VEVO 770 form Visual Sonics (Canada) coupled to a 30 MHz transducer was used. Images were obtained from the subcostal and parasternal views. M-mode images showed right ventricular muscle thickness. Short and long-axis B-dimensional views of both ventricles were acquired at the level of the papillary muscles to obtain left and right ventricular areas, as well as left ventricular cardiac output and ejection fraction by Simpson’s method (Lang et al., 2006). All parameters followed the recommendations of the American and European Societies of echocardiography.

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