“An important aspect of cognitive control consists in the

“An important aspect of cognitive control consists in the ability to stop oneself from making inappropriate responses. In an earlier study we demonstrated

that there are different mechanisms for stopping: global and selective [Aron, A. R., Verbruggen, F. (2008). Stop the presses: Dissociating a selective from a global mechanism see more for stopping. Psychological Science, 19(11) 1146-1153]. We argued that participants are more likely to use a global mechanism when speed is of the essence, whereas they are more likely to use a selective mechanism when they have foreknowledge of which response tendency they may need to stop. Here we further investigate the relationship between foreknowledge and selective stopping. In Experiment 1 we adapted the earlier design to show that individual differences in recall accuracy

for the stopping goal correlate with the selectivity of the stopping. This confirms that encoding and using a foreknowledge memory cue is a key enabler for a selective stopping mechanism. In Experiment 2, selleck chemicals we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to test the hypothesis that foreknowledge “”sets up”" a control set whereby control is applied onto the response representation that may need to be stopped in the future. We applied TMS to the left motor cortex and measured motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right hand while participants performed a similar behavioral paradigm as Experiment 1. In the foreknowledge period, MEPs were significantly reduced for trials where the right hand was the one that might need to be stopped relative to when it Phosphoglycerate kinase was not. This shows that having a goal of what response may need to be stopped in the future consists in applying advance control onto a specific motor representation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Previous reports of neonatal coarctation repair demonstrate a high rate of recurrent arch obstruction in small neonates. This study assesses the effect of patient size on reintervention and survival in neonates and infants undergoing repair of simple aortic coarctation.


From 1996 to 2006, 167 neonates and infants younger than 90 days with simple coarctation underwent repair. Median patient age was 16 days (range, 1-85 days). Median patient weight was 3.4 kg (range, 0.8-6.0 kg), with 29 patients weighing less than 2.5 kg. All 167 patients included in the study underwent repair through a left thoracotomy.

Results: There was 1 early death (1/167, 0.6%). Median follow-up of 4.8 years (range, 0-11.8 years) demonstrated 2 late deaths unrelated to recurrent coarctation. Eighteen patients underwent intervention for recurrent arch obstruction a median of 0.48 years postoperatively (range, 0.14-9.8 years). All were treated with balloon angioplasty and have required no additional intervention. Actuarial freedom from reintervention was 90% at 1 year and 89% at 5 years for infants weighing more than 2.

Comments are closed.