89) than the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of 1000 mg per day

89) than the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of 1000 mg per day set by the Institute of Medicine for adults 19 years of age or older (Medicine, 2011). Dietary intake at follow-up indicated that both groups were continuing to consume similar amounts of selleck chemicals calcium, although intake was slightly below the RDA at this time point (853 �� 521 mg for WBV group vs. 943 �� 455 mg for control group, p=0.66). Since calcium intake was similar between groups and consumption was above national levels for this age group, it is not likely that dietary intake of calcium influenced the bone results reported here (Alaimo et al., 1994). It was unexpected to discover that control participants experienced a decrease in BMD during the 29 weeks between DXA scans (?1.9% at the lateral spine and ?0.9% at the PA spine).

These participants were asked to maintain their normal diet and exercise patterns and they demonstrated no significant changes in physical activity (MET-hours per week), dietary intake (mg per day of calcium), or body mass (kg). While the percent change could be due to measurement error associated with the DXA analysis, the combination of controls experiencing a decrease, while the WBV demonstrated an increase suggests the findings are due to the exercise intervention and not measurement error. With that said, a decrease in BMD for control participants warrants additional investigation into possible causes such as binge drinking or changes in the amount of bone-loading activity between high school and college years.

The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the osteogenic potential of WBV training with dynamic exercise at improving bone health in young individuals, thereby optimizing peak bone mass development. Results of this small investigation of a short duration are promising and provide justification for further evaluation, including correction of limitations to this pilot study such as the small sample size and 12-week intervention period. A longer training period may provide greater power to detect significant differences and would allow for periodic tracking of BMD changes. With so few participants, it was not possible to effectively evaluate bone improvements in men and women separately. Greater knowledge could be gained if this investigation were to be replicated with a larger sample size while investigating men and women separately.

A whole body vibration training program incorporating exercises such as squat, stiff-lead deadlift, stationary lunges, push-up hold, bent-over row, and jumps performed 3 days a week, for 12 weeks, improved spinal BMD in healthy, college-aged men and women. The program, which ranged in vibration frequency from 15�C26 Dacomitinib Hz, requiring 20�C30 min per workout, elicited a positive change in vertebral bone mineral density. By increasing BMD in young adults, peak bone mass can be optimized and future risk for osteoporosis may be diminished.

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