1b 87.0b NR 1.9b 84.8b NR Alr GS  2.7c 1400c NR 4.3c 2550c NR Alr SL  0.4c NR 3800c 0.4c NR 3300c Alr BA  2.8b 101b NR NR NR NR Alr EF  2.2c 1210c ~2340c 7.8c 3570c ~2340c aOne unit is defined as the amount of enzyme that catalyzes racemization of 1 μmol of substrate per minute. bAt 23°C. cAt 37°C. NR: not reported. Hinge angle The hinge angle of the A monomer of AlrSP, Adavosertib formed by the Cα atoms of residues 99, 38 and 270 in the N-terminal α/β barrel domain and the C-terminal β-strand domain, is 132.3°. This is well within the range of hinge angles found between corresponding residues in the other Gram-positive alanine racemase
structures (127.6° for AlrBA, 129.4° for AlrGS, 131.6° for AlrEF, and 138.2° for AlrSL). The difference in the degree of tilt between the C-terminal domains for the five structures can be seen in Figure 3A. Hydrogen bonding between the C- and N-terminal tails of opposite monomers was proposed by LeMagueres et al. to account for the distinct domain orientations of AlrMT and DadXPA . Alanine racemase structures with extra residues at the N- and C-terminal tails, such as AlrGS and AlrBA, often form these hydrogen bonds,
which GDC-0068 in vivo are associated with smaller hinge angles (127.6° for AlrBA, 129.4° for AlrGS). Although the hinge angle clearly varies from species to species for this enzyme, the active sites CP673451 chemical structure superpose very well. Further, there is no correlation between hinge angle and Vmax (data not shown). On the other hand, there is some correlation between
alanine racemase activity and bacterial doubling time. For example, the enzyme from the slow growing M. tuberculosis is very slow compared to the same enzyme from the rapid growing M. smegmatis species. It has previously been noted that only the dimeric form of the enzyme is active  and that many of the alanine racemase enzymes with the strongest monomer-dimer association have been found Staurosporine ic50 to be the most active . A recent report has appeared looking at how enzyme activity in different alanine racemases relates to self-association affinity and this report confirms this assertion . Active site The geometry and identities of the active site residues of AlrSP (Figure 4A) are very similar to that of other alanine racemases (Figure 4B). The main components of the AlrSP active site include the PLP cofactor covalently bound to Lys40 (forming an N’-pyridoxyl-lysine-5′-monophosphate or LLP residue), the catalytic base residue Tyr263′ which lies at the beginning of helix 11 in the β-strand domain (contributed by the opposite monomer to that providing Lys40), and a hydrogen-bonded network of residues (Figure 5).